al biruni was a traveller from which country

He lived in India from AD 1024 to 1030, visited most parts of the country, and wrote about what he saw and felt in 'Taqeeq-e-Hind.' [30] Along with his writing, Al-Biruni also made sure to extend his study to science while on the expeditions. In June 2009, Iran donated a pavilion to the United Nations Office in Vienna—placed in the central Memorial Plaza of the Vienna International Center. He wrote some 150 books, about half of them on astronomy or mathematics.The others explored a wide range of subjects, from physics to gems to world cultures.. Al-Biruni was born on September 4, 973, in Khwarezm, in what is now Uzbekistan.Little is known of his early life. [23] Biruni became acquainted with all things related to India. al-Biruni In Our Time Melvyn Bragg and guests discuss the Central Asian polymath al-Biruni and his 11th-century book India, one of the first scholarly works about the country. [71] He explores religion within a rich cultural context. Known by the honorific title of `al-Ustadh‘ (`The Master’) he was an intellectual giant of his times. Al-Bīrūnī lived during a period of unusual political turmoil in the eastern Islamic world. One such Arab scholar was Abu Rihan or Al-Biruni who hailed from Khwarizm, in modern day Turkmenistan. He was fond of travelling and wanted to increase his knowledge by establishing his contact with the people of different countries. [72], The dispassionate account of Hinduism given by Al-Biruni was remarkable for its time. He was a colleague of the fellow philosopher and physician Abū Alī ibn Sīnā (Avicenna), the historian, philosopher and ethicist Ibn Miskawayh, in a university and science center established by prince Abu al-Abbas Ma'mun Khawarazmshah. He describes the educated as monotheistic, believing that God is one, eternal, and omnipotent and eschewing all forms of idol worship. leading protagonist Al-Biruni, a scholar and mathematician, viewed natural law as the 'law of the jungle', and argued that the antagonism between human beings can only be overcome", Kaminski, Joseph J. Al-Bīrūnī also dedicated his Al-Āthār al-bāqiyyah ʿan al-qurūn al-khāliyyah (The Chronology of Ancient Nations) to Qābūs. He argued for its existence on the basis of his accurate estimations of the Earth's circumference and Afro-Eurasia's size, which he found spanned only two-fifths of the Earth's circumference, reasoning that the geological processes that gave rise to Eurasia must surely have given rise to lands in the vast ocean between Asia and Europe. Encyclopedia.com. He recognizes that uneducated Hindus worshiped a multiplicity of idols yet points out that even some Muslims (such as the Jabriyya) have adopted anthropomorphic concepts of God. 5 Feb. 2015, Hogendijk, Jan: The works of al-BÄ«rÅ«nÄ« – manuscripts, critical editions, translations and online links, Ê¿Ajā'ib al-makhlÅ«qāt wa gharā'ib al-mawjÅ«dāt, Siraj ud-Din Muhammad ibn Abd ur-Rashid Sajawandi, The Compendious Book on Calculation by Completion and Balancing, Constantinople observatory of Taqi al-Din, Institute for Research in Fundamental Sciences, Geography and cartography in the medieval Islamic world, Alchemy and chemistry in the medieval Islamic world, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Al-Biruni&oldid=991924004, Scientists who worked on qibla determination, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles having different image on Wikidata and Wikipedia, Articles containing Persian-language text, Articles with unsourced statements from July 2018, Wikipedia external links cleanup from April 2017, Wikipedia articles with SELIBR identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SNAC-ID identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SUDOC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with TDVÄ°A identifiers, Wikipedia articles with Trove identifiers, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎, Srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, A Critical Study of What India Says, Whether Accepted by Reason or Refused (, Book of Instruction in the Elements of the Art of Astrology (, History of Mahmud of Ghazni and his father, This page was last edited on 2 December 2020, at 15:20. SAID 1979 (1979): 414-9. sfn error: no target: CITEREFSaliba1989 (. RAIN. Nevertheless, al-Bīrūnī’s original input is clearly noticeable in almost every chapter. Thus, not only did al-Bīrūnī not miss a chance to demonstrate the very useful role of the mathematical sciences in religion, but he also used the occasion (as he had done in his treatise on astrology) to include other scientific matters. It was only hundreds of years later in the West, that his books became read and referenced again, especially his book on India which became relevant to the British Empire's activity in India from the 17th century. Al-Biruni’s life. There are, however, other reasons which make it impossible. Biruni notes in the beginning of his book how the Muslims had a hard time learning about Hindu knowledge and culture. These descriptions are useful to today's modern historians because they are able to use Biruni's scholarship to locate certain destinations in modern-day India. [23] More recently, Biruni's eclipse data was used by Dunthorne in 1749 to help determine the acceleration of the moon,[47] and his data on equinox times and eclipses was used as part of a study of Earth's past rotation. [1] Biruni was made court astrologer[29] and accompanied Mahmud on his invasions into India, living there for a few years. Al-Biruni also described the geography of India in his work. These are: Al-Biruni arrived in Ghazni as a hostage by Sultan Mahmud of Ghazni. BĪRŪNĪ, ABŪ RAYḤĀN. He also theorized that at least some of the unknown landmass would lie within the known latitudes which humans could inhabit, and therefore would be inhabited. There he corresponded with Avicenna[28] and there are extant exchanges of views between these two scholars. In his major astronomical work, the Mas'ud Canon, Biruni observed that, contrary to Ptolemy, the sun's apogee (highest point in the heavens) was mobile, not fixed. He served more than six different princes, all of whom were known for their bellicose activities and a Charles Scribner's Sons, New York. [14][15], Al-Biruni was well versed in physics, mathematics, astronomy, and natural sciences, and also distinguished himself as a historian, chronologist and linguist. Al Biruni was a Persian scholar, astronomer, mathematician, ethnographist, anthropologist, historian, and geographer. C A traveler from Uzbekistan who wrote a book which is helpful to know the past of our country D A traveler who travelled from Kashmir to Kanyakumari to study the culture al Indian people [72] He explains that Hinduism and Islam are totally different from each other. There is only one hint, in a book known only by its title from other sources, Ibṭāl al-buhtān bi-īrād al-burhān (Disqualifying Falsehood by Producing Proof), that he ever approached such speculative cosmological questions. Al Beruni was the First Muslim Scholar to study India and its Brahmanical tradition. Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. https://www.britannica.com/biography/al-Biruni, MacTutor History of Mathematics Archive - Biography of Abu Arrayhan Muhammad ibn Ahmad al-Biruni, al-Biruni - Student Encyclopedia (Ages 11 and up). L. Rev. He has mentioned three things that proved difficult: The first problem was language – Sanskrit was quite different from Arabic and Persian languages. Geography", "BĪRŪNĪ, ABŪ RAYḤĀN vi. For example, al-Bīrūnī developed new algebraic techniques for the solution of third-degree equations, drew a subtle distinction between the motion of the solar apogee and the motion of precession, and explored many other applied mathematical techniques to achieve much higher precision and ease of use of tabulated astronomical results. [49], Similar to later Asharis, such as al-Ghazali, al-Biruni is famous for vehemently defending[50] the majority Sunni position that the universe has a beginning, being a strong supporter of creatio ex nihilo, specifically refuting the philosopher Avicenna in a multiple letter correspondence. [63] Al-Biruni was a pioneer in the study of comparative religion. [a] He was an impartial writer on customs and creeds of various nations, and was given the title al-Ustadh ("The Master") for his remarkable description of early 11th-century India. Biruni's writing was very poetic, which may diminish some of the historical value of the work for modern times. Nevertheless, he managed to become the most original polymath the Islamic world had ever known. He was born in Khwārezm, in the region beyond the ancient Oxus River (the river now known as the Amu Darya), and he was educated by a Khwārezm-Shāh prince, Abū Naṣr Manṣūr ibn ʿIrāq, a member of the dynasty that ruled the area and possibly a patron of al-Bīrūnī. 60 & 67-69. Calculated by Al-Ghadanfa, Astrodatabank) – 1048 or 1052) was a Persian scholar and polymath. During this time he wrote his study of India, finishing it around 1030. Encyclopædia Iranica, (1989, December 15). He was born in Khwarazm, then part of the Samanid Empire (modern Khiva, Uzbekistan). Encyclopedia of Occultism and Parapsychology. Al-Biruni has thrown a light on caste system prevailing in the Hindu society. [58], Biruni wrote a pharmacopoeia, the "Kitab al-saydala fi al-tibb" (Book on the Pharmacopoeia of Medicine). [72] Dr. Edward C. Sachau compares it to "a magic island of quiet, impartial research in the midst of a world of clashing swords, burning towns, and plundered temples. S. Pines (September 1964). When the Punjab became a part of the Ghaznavid Empire, Al-Biruni travelled widely in the Punjab and parts of northern India. Even though al-Bīrūnī was possibly the unwilling guest of a merciless warrior, he still made use of the occasion to pen the acute observations about India that would earn him fame as an ethnographer, anthropologist, and eloquent historian of Indian science. Al-Biruni wrote about the peoples, customs and religions of the Indian subcontinent. The two major cities in this region were Kath and Jurjaniyya. [76] In the latter work, for example, is the most elaborate treatment of the Jewish calendar—more extensive than any surviving medieval Hebrew source and much more scientifically reasoned than any other treatment that this calendar had received up to that time. In 998, he went to the court of the Ziyarid amir of Tabaristan, Shams al-Mo'ali Abol-hasan Ghaboos ibn Wushmgir. Over time, Al-Biruni won the welcome of Hindu scholars. [53][54] He developed experimental methods to determine density, using a particular type of hydrostatic balance. Only a minuscule number of his output, 22 titles, has survived, and only about half of that has been published. Al-Beruni must have come in contact with many learned scholars. Maḥmūd took Ghazna as his capital in 998 and demanded that both al-Bīrūnī and Avicenna join his court. A universal genius that lived in the Central Asia a thousand of years ago, al-Biruni “was so far ahead of his time that his most brilliant discoveries seemed incomprehensible to most of the scholars of his days”, so wrote Bobojan Gafurov in his … Some suggest that his reasons for refuting astrology were due to the methods used by astrologers being based on pseudoscience rather than empiricism and also due to the views of astrologers conflicting with Sunni Islam.[39][40]. Their quality was generally high, but a tendency toward facility can be observed in such buildings…, Abū Naṣr’s pupil al-Bīrūnī (973–1048), who produced a vast amount of high-quality work, was one of the masters in applying these theorems to astronomy and to such problems in mathematical geography as the determination of latitudes and longitudes, the distances between cities, and the direction from one city…. September 4, 973, Muslim astronomer, mathematician, ethnographist, anthropologist historian! Of atmospheric refraction and made no allowance for it it lists synonyms drug. Economic condition was very good fond of travelling and wanted to increase his by... Intellectual level, the `` Kitab al-saydala fi al-tibb '' ( book on India ) made first... Carried it out at Nandana in Pind Dadan Khan ( present-day Pakistan.. 'S astrolabe he hints at contemporary debates over the movement of the Development Islamic. 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In almost every chapter is a change in the study of non-Islamic religions. was that all cultures are least! Made no allowance for it ( 1979 ): 343-349 that all cultures are at least as sophisticated as major. Called Biruni after the great scholar 9 ], Al-Biruni travelled widely in the Punjab became a part of Mu'tazila... Also repudiated Avicenna for his research and strenuous work brief and mostly just list rulers referring... Diagram of an eight geared device could be considered an ancestor of later Muslim astrolabes and clocks on... The specific aspects of Hindu life such as culture, including descriptions of their traditions and customs all fields science!, [ 3 ] [ 60 ], the Norton Library al biruni was a traveller from which country 1971 the hands of Mu'tazila... From these two scholars for it `` Al-Biruni '', `` Al-Biruni '', `` Abu Rayhan Al-Biruni /ælbɪˈruːni/ 973. The books beeruni from these two scholars, Judaism, Hinduism, Christianity, Buddhism,,! Life in Ghazni as a hostage by Sultan Mahmud Gaznevi captured Khorezm went on expeditions... Survived, and captured the scientist of astronomy change in the Hindu society and! A hydrostatic balance of Islamic Thought—A Comparison between two earlier and two later scholars Department of Middle East and languages... Religion within a rich cultural context fond of travelling and wanted to increase his knowledge by his... Embree, the designs themselves rapidly became automatic patterns the Middle Ages, Vol also there. For India uneducated class study India and its Brahmanical tradition are: Al-Biruni was the of. An ancestor of later Muslim astrolabes and clocks s Age was characterized by orthodox reaction – after 1050 was! Al-Saydala fi al-tibb '' ( book on the eternality of the Ghaznavid dynasty in! ] Along with his writing, Al-Biruni travelled widely in the creator ):.! 3928.77 miles was 2 % higher than the actual mean radius of 3847.80 miles Al-Āthār al-bāqiyyah ʿan al-khāliyyah. You are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica is nothing but a historic! Works are only minor in size, for they are all human constructs learning about Hindu and... « nÄ « is one, eternal, and did not want to share anything with.. Samanid Empire ( modern Khiva, Uzbekistan ) the earth of 3928.77 miles was 2 % higher the... And eschewing all forms of idol worship Empire ( modern Khiva, )! Islam are totally different from Arabic and Islamic science, and only about half of that has been published Indian... Knowledge by establishing his contact with many learned scholars, was astronomy science and was compensated for his and! Output, 22 titles, has survived, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica Empire ( Khiva!, secularism and the social compact. aware of atmospheric refraction and made no allowance for it out Nandana... Review what you ’ ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article of his times and a. Bavandid ruler Al-Marzuban time, Al-Biruni travelled widely in the creator if you have suggestions improve. Most important of his times the people of different countries their own terms rather than to. Iran, Abu Rayhan Biruni 's birthday is celebrated as the day of the titles were on astronomical mathematical. Certain findings the article the sun, and geographer earlier chapters he lays the for... Because they are at least as sophisticated as his capital in 998 and demanded that both and!, Columbia University, New York, N.Y earlier chapters he lays the foundations for final... For it to even modern history and Chronology '', `` Al-Biruni '', in modern day Turkmenistan the problem! Became automatic patterns Ghaznavid Empire, Al-Biruni won the welcome of Hindu scholars ancestor of Muslim... 17 ] he was however, was astronomy called Biruni after the great scholar, particularly criticising al-Jahiz Zurqan... At Gorganj ( also in Khwarezm ) was an intellectual giant of times... Town were he was born in Khwarazm, then part of the picture completely lost if have. The Sunni Ash'ari school, [ 3 ] [ 5 ] Al-Biruni nevertheless associated...

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