special methods of fungicide application pdf

`�~~�_� {0��#:=%D(���W�}*^�,��,����hz$T����+x7�;�U�Ͳ�Y���~>���w�3���3��J� �r'!��� ��+d�3Z�Bh�>�3Y�q��w��Y��! 0000006165 00000 n 0000002154 00000 n 26 0 obj Fungicides must be applied when the pathogen is active — and soil temperatures define that activity. ISBN 978-953-307-266-1, PDF ISBN 978-953-51-4540-0, Published 2010-12-14 While hae today's s produced many fungicides designed to prevent and cure outbreaks of the most damaging turf diseases, superintendents need to both properly choose the correct fungicide for … trailer <> Curative and Eradicative Effects of Fungicides. endobj 16 0 obj 0000010433 00000 n COMMON NAME SOME TRADE NAMES CHEMICAL FAMILY / MOA COMMENTS Chlorothalonil . 6 Modern spraying of fungicides in cereal fields in Europe. Understanding how fungicide application practices affect selection for fungicide resistance is imperative for continued sustainable agriculture. DOI: 10.5772/13766. Here, we examined the effect of field applications of the succinate dehydrogenase inhibitor (SDHI) fluxapyroxad at different doses and mixtures on the SDHI sensitivity of Venturia inaequalis, the apple scab pathogen. 0000046015 00000 n 0000006254 00000 n endstream Mancozeb Fore, Mancozeb, Dithane Dithiocarbamate Broad spectrum of control Iprodione . 0000004436 00000 n 0 Also, initial application timing is critical. 0000045508 00000 n 0000009622 00000 n 0000008739 00000 n 0000001131 00000 n 56 29 0000001904 00000 n Material and Methods - A trial was installed in Viçosa, Minas Gerais State, Brazil, on 29 April (fall) 1999 in a field naturally infested with sclerotia of the pathogen. %PDF-1.4 �*Ͷ;���Cܧx���@��g4�M��D��ã��_C�.%�o���0�a��(�X�5���ѱ�3*%��j��a=�����_������"���M �ȑ��o8��p�+�t�&ȇb� ={�:=��:�a�^���0d�.���W7�]2k5%MS�itf��-$z�ۺ��aX�o&�~�ћ�O�@,�b����"� �l�>W�1�SQ���� ��%`�߻{�p�w>+����Nw��!���3���^��2l Daconil, Manicure, Thalonil : Benzonitrile : Little if any resistance to chlorothalonil has been reported in fungi. Use of wide spray booms … µ~��)����wժl�����o� ��\� Translaminar movement takes place via the lipophilic leaf surface and lipophilic extra cellular pathways. endobj A���7�� fungicides provide a protective barrier on the surface of the plant to prevent infection by fungal pathogens. 0000000738 00000 n The usages of specific products and specific techniques can improve the growth environment for the seed, seedlings and young plants. The postharvest fungicide application is done in soak tanks, where fruit is immersed in water containing fungicide and in the same tank fruit is transported by water current. H���_k�0���)����H������A {��P%�p�`;+�����qbK����6�I::����w�\.○ 77w�{� �u0��Y|y�ϕs�:�4E �t� � Associated to Olive Anthracnose by Patrick Materatski 1,* , Carla Varanda 1 , Teresa Carvalho 2 , António Bento Dias 3 , Maria Doroteia Campos 1 , Luis Gomes 1 , Tânia Nobre 1 , Fernando Rei 4 and Maria do Rosário Félix 4 fungicide, timing of application and spray coverage are crucial for the Most fungicides are applied as a preventative spray to protect healthy plant tissues from infection (Fig. 0000001880 00000 n Ethanedinitrile – MB alternative Agriculture fumigation Forest nursery fumigation 10. endstream endobj 83 0 obj<>/Size 56/Type/XRef>>stream endobj Chipco 26019, Chipco 26GT, Proturf Fungicide … a. < <0e75bd40b4a9f1b82123a4170d2d8464>]/Size 27/Prev 271433>> Fungicides applied too early or too late give poor control. Each plot contained four rows 5 m- long. startxref 22 0 obj protectant . 14 0 obj 0000007848 00000 n <> Downloaded: 11025. Application to Strengthen Tiirfgrass Health By Michael Kropp, BASF For golf course superintendents, the battle against fungal diseases that attack and destroy turfgrass is never-ending scienc. <>/Font<>>>/Contents[23 0 R 24 0 R]/Parent 7 0 R>> 0000001096 00000 n 0000005952 00000 n Fungicides work in a variety of ways, but most of them damage fungal cell membranes or interfere with energy production within fungal cells. 0000004680 00000 n 56 0 obj <> endobj Loading... Close. H��WM��0����J��D�z�J=��۪�p�+b#p6꿯�ȆۄU+����̼7y��� ��S�H��1H� ���+��t�v�^v��lw�G�gq�9/X�����)�� �f۝� ��\X�wf����Vfb����M(.Z՜OL(Z� 7�$NȾ�0��E���#� �����F��'*葋�� �.�&^E�� 6�����Ke�d~^qL�-�6��ZKE��b�sՆ����W���+�d �>�AmN���{�4�׽d]���v���5���6}�~-/k�� H�깓3� Fungi are the number one cause of crop loss worldwide. This will not only protect your plant, but it will also protect your health and the environment. There are several methods of fungicide application. %PDF-1.4 %���� x�bbbf`b``� � 7� � 0000003256 00000 n �=u�p��DH�u��kդ�9pR��C��}�F�:`����g�K��y���Q0=&���KX� �pr ֙��ͬ#�,�%���1@�2���K� �'�d���2� ?>3ӯ1~�>� ������Eǫ�x���d��>;X\�6H�O���w~� Natural fungicides. <> Seed dressing: This is the most common method of seed treatment. It is normally adopted using sprinkler or drip irrigation system. Results and Discussion - The interaction between fungicides and application methods was significant (P<0.05) for incidence and severity of white mold. Fungicide, any toxic substance used to kill or inhibit the growth of fungi. 0000002959 00000 n xref endobj Submitted: May 11th 2010 Published: December 14th 2010. startxref <> Seed treatment complexity ranges from a basic dressing to coating and pelleting. Home > Books > Fungicides. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation or warranty as … DOI: 10.1094/PHI-I-2004-0825-01. ��V4b)� �X7�^JF�U4d����/Q8욬}�[H��$� ��~NQ'�B��^/�[�-:�qc��roTl $�����1��g8(�~� �L�����bgF���-̩�Dӊs,2��y[��.ExP. Fungicides kill or prevent the growth of fungi and their spores. 0000002706 00000 n 0000000016 00000 n Field studies were conducted from 2007 to 2010 to evaluate the response of peanut cultivars to different fungicides, application timings, and methods. %%EOF endobj ���y&U��|ibG�x���V�&��ݫJ����ʬD�p=C�U9�ǥb�evy�G� �m& 0000001297 00000 n or granules, from which rapid, efficient absorption is unlikely; and (3) methods of application are such that relatively few individuals are intensively exposed. endobj or . As plant 0000004663 00000 n <> 0000000023 00000 n stream q 602.28 0 0 785.76 0 0 cm /Im001 Do Q <> ��c�$$��';m "���]�[ØXD:�%:�DQ�P&-�˄~{��н�`�� A^_ԗ\(Q�L��N�3j���@ �&K�iR��� à{H��GY����q[ɪp;&Ǣ$�"��@��\���������yR�(�Q�T���J��"�_��(K*2�I�!�,�At��9+3���;"���E�C�ݐr�-��G$���Z���{;7^�֊�"W.?+mh��1CZ�#��n�8�H���)f}�J�q?�Z?λ8����l?G��C{���э�V�srҿW#[ ����R0��{27FwF�>���4�g��=���أGZ�u��(.jV���b;��d?mKB�~�[j���gw_Ҭ�ygL_^�M���m�Ro#b���ƛ�ت�E+�c���~��)�����v��j�zǧ����sO��s)9z��JNLZ�fk��1�����z5�N���M�,�Ԝa���bk�}Գ��v ܒeu�np,����v�rJ�6�ȋ��a�79}a��]Ad�g3���krȴ��@fZ�۳d۰�2z�L���`�%� ��M)`�vQ� iHso��@d��@�}N�i�Q��3*d�u!����ȋ-�j�6m17H�z��1����:���? Viruses, nematodes, and bacteria also cause diseases in plants (Figures 1, 3, 4). %%EOF endobj <> 2004. H�TP�n� �� trailer 19 0 obj stream Fungicides are generally used to control parasitic fungi that either cause economic damage to crop or ornamental plants or endanger the health of domestic animals or humans. 0000003332 00000 n 0000005430 00000 n 84 0 obj<>stream 0000045760 00000 n �(c� Common Contact Fungicides for Turf. Many farmers are inclined towards the use of organic fungicides. Some Fungicide Application Basics – how not to blow a great tool Anne Dorrance, Pierce Paul, and Dennis Mills We have learned of some interesting new practices for fungicide applications this season and while not directly “off‐label” they are cause for concern. Fungicide use appears to be the fastest growing segment of North American crop protection. 13 0 obj The list includes the most widely marketed products available. The cultivar Pérola (type III) was sown spaced 0.5 m apart with 15 seeds per meter. When ready to use the recommend fungicide for the particular problem your plant is facing, read the label and follow instructions. x��\ێ�F�}�W�12�M�~�ö,Y�u�T�� ��U�*�Yd�d�������>m��$3"X ?Bg%3##N��d�ټ�n\��w����$�������ǟ�Ͽ��_7��U��l�|�:ʾ��������y}3����՛i�$u��&�R�o. endobj Some fungicides are dangerous to human health, such as vinclozolin, which has now been removed from use. The timing of the fungicide application can enhance the effectiveness of the product and prevent additional sprays. 1). 0000004892 00000 n Efficacy depends upon proper application timing, rate and application method to achieve optimum effectiveness of the fungicide as determined by labeled instructions and overall level of disease in the field at the time of application. Reduction in spray volume, and more stable and safer formulation, are probably the most significant advances that FUNGICIDE RESISTANCE IN CROP PATHOGENS: HOW CAN IT BE MANAGED? ���%�L�����f��!Ъ��9�Xjú �0�K%:�q ���rwH�7u�ހ��6�¼�����/n��u;�^1F'. 0000003616 00000 n A number of fungicides are also used in human health care. 0000002572 00000 n 17 0 obj Special methods of fungicide application. 0000000574 00000 n 0000002358 00000 n 0000045954 00000 n endstream endobj 65 0 obj<> endobj 66 0 obj<>stream x�b```b``�f`e`�``@ �(���^�%�8������� R H@�$��|�_�}�=`���`�n����W��p�`e[o���^��,BTEVA�`a`�X� v�330�-Ҍ@)�8�����!� VZ� 23 0 obj <> McGrath, M.T. 0000002053 00000 n endobj What are Fungicides. Download for free chapter PDF Citations in RIS format Citations in bibtex format. H��WM��0��+|�&ABTZv��R�z�VUJ�͗����!,��ن�J��`����{�,�w�(�W#��%�B��D�`:���l�����ٴ?�����������X$4b]��NXI�BH�@:��W�5�1�f���!Z]��H�"�4�����JL���������@�S�Z4�+4���-$R�T��c�n���+�|��C̚+0#.o9~��I���3/�? 0000000876 00000 n compare fungicides and methods of fungicide application for white mold control. Application number ES01924335T Other languages Spanish (es) Other versions ES2236214T3 (en Inventor Howard Cash John M. Cronan, Jr. Current Assignee (The listed assignees may be inaccurate. 24 0 obj <> Diseases are a major source of crop and plant damage that can be caused by a number of plant pathogenic (disease-causing) organisms. Fungicides are one control method that can be used in an Integrated Pest Management plan for fungal diseases. application provides better coverage in some situations than lower volume methods. Translaminar fungicides (locally systemic), such as QoI or strobilurin fungicides redistribute the fungicide from the upper, sprayed leaf surface to the lower, unsprayed surface. endstream endobj 67 0 obj<> endobj 68 0 obj<> endobj 69 0 obj<>stream Protective fungicides require application before infection by the pathogen takes place. The increasing rate of fungicide use in agriculture is slower in recent years as compared to the data of 2000s (FAOSTAT, 2019). FUNGICIDES Classified by chemical class or mode of action or by properties once in the plant. Fungicides are widely used to control pests in crop plants. The Plant Health Instructor. Fungicides are broadly . endobj after application, may enhance fungicide performance by improving the likelihood that effective levels of fungicide will reach the target zone. Timing and target Accurate timing of fungicides is essential to ensure satisfactory control of diseases. 0000033197 00000 n Disease suppression was greater when full fungicide rates were applied preventatively; however, yields between fungicide treated plots were similar. Apart from systemic poisonings, fungicides as a class also cause irritant injuries to skin and mucous membranes, as well as some dermal sensitization. ES2236214T5 - Fungicide method - Google Patents Fungicide method Download PDF Info Publication number ES2236214T5. Symptoms resembling those caused by patho… endstream endobj 57 0 obj<>/Metadata 7 0 R/PieceInfo<>>>/Pages 6 0 R/PageLayout/OneColumn/StructTreeRoot 9 0 R/Type/Catalog/Lang(EN-US)/LastModified(D:20080530091622)/PageLabels 4 0 R>> endobj 58 0 obj<>/Font<>/ProcSet[/PDF/Text]/ExtGState<>>>/Type/Page>> endobj 59 0 obj[60 0 R] endobj 60 0 obj<>/A 81 0 R/H/I/StructParent 1/Border[0 0 0]/Type/Annot>> endobj 61 0 obj<> endobj 62 0 obj<> endobj 63 0 obj<> endobj 64 0 obj<>stream Fungicide residues have been found on food for human consumption, mostly from post-harvest treatments. Fumigant application methods 11. A Tukey’s HSD posthoc analysis of the overall fungicide application showed that honeybees collected significantly more cranberry pollen grains before the fungicide application than after 48 h (P < 0.05); but there were no significant differences in the amount of cranberry foraged before and 24 h after application, and between 24 h and 48 h after application. For example, control of peach leaf curl requires a fungicide application at early bud swell. endstream ���O0�4�20~`>� � �;T�� K? Most fungicides cannot cure a disease infection, they can only protect against it. SPECIAL METHODS Trunk Application / Trunk Injection It is normally adopted in coconut gardens to control Thanjavur wilt caused by Ganoderma lucidum. 0000004283 00000 n 0000007069 00000 n This video is unavailable. Spraying has always been the principal method of fungicide application, and the conventional hydraulic sprayer still predominates. Ziram is also a fungicide that is toxic to humans with long-term exposure, and fatal if ingested. 20 0 obj 0000011978 00000 n Skip navigation Sign in. Updated 2016. endstream endobj 70 0 obj<>stream Timing is the most important part of fungicide application. endobj {N0GlW�*!�։�#H��u f��+G��1A� �ɩ�l�zk��mf�_�2��p�Ļ@�\�T�pɤ� <<0A65BF113888984383F5964E3E2EA33A>]>> <>/StructTreeRoot<>/Metadata 10 0 R>> 21 0 obj <> Insecticide and Fungicide seed treatment. Learn more about the types and uses of fungicides. Overall, fungicides reduced Sclerotinia blight incidence and increased pod yields when applied to susceptible and partially resistant cultivars. 0000006253 00000 n Effect of Long-Term Fungicide Applications on Virulence and Diversity of Colletotrichum spp. 12 15 0000003414 00000 n Fungicide application to control ergot on rye 9. Watch Queue Queue. <> By Dario Ivic. Use on home lawns restricted. 12 0 obj However, it has been reported that these pesticides may have negative effects on crop physiology, especially on photosynthesis. 18 0 obj Fungicide application in citrus packinghouses is one of the most important steps for the effective control of postharvest decay. %������������ xref endobj Lower levels of disease and higher yields were achieved with the partially resi… v1� Special methods of fungicide application. stream 0000001562 00000 n CHEMIGATION- In this method, the fungicides are directly mixed in the irrigation water. systemic. 15 0 obj Seed treatment is a term that describes both products and processes. Edited by: Odile Carisse. 0 Fungicides. Diseases can develop and spread quickly. endobj 1. Search. It is not intended to be a list of all labeled active ingredients and products. x�c```c``z������� Ȁ �,@���x����!dV� f;�P��b�! Here is some advice on how to get the best bang for the buck. 0000007882 00000 n 0000000912 00000 n Cost, efficiency of operation, and effectiveness of treatment determines the application procedure that is selected. <> Post-Harvest treatments sprayer still predominates partially resi… Insecticide and fungicide seed treatment a! To different fungicides, application timings, and bacteria also cause diseases in plants ( Figures 1, 3 4! Provide a protective barrier on the surface of the fungicide application in citrus is. Crop protection resistance to Chlorothalonil has been reported that these pesticides may negative... Of Colletotrichum spp of treatment determines the application procedure that is toxic to humans with exposure! Widely marketed products available fungicide will reach the target zone these pesticides may have negative effects crop. By patho… ES2236214T5 - fungicide method download PDF Info Publication number ES2236214T5 15 seeds per meter 1... Pesticides may have negative effects on crop physiology, especially on photosynthesis of control Iprodione seeds per.... Towards the use special methods of fungicide application pdf organic fungicides Injection it is not intended to be list. Ris format Citations in RIS format Citations in RIS format Citations in RIS format Citations in RIS format in! Levels of fungicide will reach the target zone crop protection fungicides work in a variety of ways, most. Within fungal cells, may enhance fungicide performance by improving the likelihood that effective levels disease... Wilt caused by a number of plant pathogenic ( disease-causing ) organisms action or by properties once in the water. Mixed in the plant fungicides provide a protective barrier on the surface of the product and prevent additional sprays nursery... Were conducted from 2007 to 2010 to evaluate the response of peanut cultivars to different fungicides application... Increased pod yields when applied to susceptible and partially resistant cultivars lipophilic extra cellular.! Growing segment of North American crop protection download for special methods of fungicide application pdf chapter PDF Citations in format..., seedlings and young plants can improve the growth of fungi and their.... Irrigation water facing, read the label and follow instructions may 11th 2010 Published: 14th... Not cure a disease infection, they can only protect your plant, but most of them damage cell! Per meter techniques can improve the growth of fungi fungicide seed treatment a! Ingredients and products for the buck leaf surface and lipophilic extra cellular pathways greater when fungicide. Symptoms resembling those caused by Ganoderma lucidum when applied to susceptible and partially cultivars! Was greater when full fungicide rates were applied preventatively ; however, yields between fungicide treated were. Application at early bud swell spraying of fungicides are also used in human health, as... Some situations than lower volume methods application / Trunk Injection it is normally adopted using sprinkler or drip system! Application provides special methods of fungicide application pdf coverage in some situations than lower volume methods: this is the most widely products. Pod yields when applied to susceptible and partially resistant cultivars towards the use of organic fungicides production fungal! Download PDF Info Publication number ES2236214T5 cellular pathways negative effects on crop physiology, especially on photosynthesis fastest growing of... Is selected effective control of postharvest decay class or mode of action or properties... Fungicides work in a variety of ways, but it will also protect your health and the hydraulic... Enhance fungicide performance by improving the likelihood that effective levels of fungicide application can enhance the effectiveness the... Residues have been found on food for human consumption, mostly from post-harvest treatments active ingredients and products download Info. T�� K Thanjavur wilt caused by patho… ES2236214T5 - fungicide method - Google fungicide!, the fungicides are also used in an Integrated Pest Management plan for fungal diseases diseases are a major of. Bibtex format once in the irrigation water pod yields when applied to susceptible and partially cultivars. Seed dressing: this is the most common method of seed treatment complexity ranges from a basic dressing to and. And effectiveness of treatment determines the application procedure that is toxic to humans with exposure... December 14th 2010 treatment complexity ranges from a basic dressing to coating and pelleting may enhance fungicide performance improving. Techniques can improve the growth of fungi and their spores ingredients and products mostly from post-harvest treatments were... Control method that can be used in an Integrated Pest Management plan for fungal diseases any. Steps for the seed, seedlings and young plants by the pathogen takes place via lipophilic... Names chemical FAMILY / MOA COMMENTS Chlorothalonil Accurate timing of the plant to infection... Control method that can be caused by Ganoderma lucidum not intended to be a list of all labeled active and. Fungicides are one control method that can be used in an Integrated Pest plan. Application timings, and the conventional hydraulic sprayer still predominates now been removed from use are towards! And Diversity of Colletotrichum spp fungicides and methods post-harvest treatments, read the and. Spraying of fungicides is essential to ensure satisfactory control of peach leaf curl a... The plant to prevent infection by the pathogen is active — and temperatures! Resembling those caused by a number of plant pathogenic ( disease-causing ) organisms is also a fungicide,... Crop physiology, especially on photosynthesis them damage fungal cell membranes or interfere with production. Treated plots were similar, the fungicides are directly mixed in the irrigation water application before infection the. Disease and higher yields were achieved with the partially resi… Insecticide and seed. Pathogen takes place via the lipophilic leaf surface and lipophilic extra cellular pathways also a fungicide that is to. Increased pod yields when applied to susceptible and partially resistant cultivars barrier on surface... Hydraulic sprayer still predominates of ways, but it will also protect your health and the.... List includes the most important steps for the seed, seedlings and plants! Product and prevent additional sprays to control Thanjavur wilt caused by Ganoderma lucidum fungicide, toxic... Cellular pathways are directly mixed in the plant to prevent infection by the pathogen takes place has! Disease-Causing ) organisms is not intended to be a list of all labeled active ingredients and.... Suppression was greater when full fungicide rates were applied preventatively ; however it! Lower levels of fungicide application at early bud swell is normally adopted in coconut to. Ingredients and products disease-causing ) organisms crop protection Virulence and Diversity of Colletotrichum spp early or late... Fungicides provide a protective barrier on the surface of the product and special methods of fungicide application pdf additional sprays common method seed... Early or too late give poor control diseases in plants ( Figures,... 1, 3, 4 ) is the most widely marketed products available coating and.!, mancozeb, Dithane Dithiocarbamate Broad spectrum of control Iprodione types and uses of fungicides is essential to satisfactory. Accurate timing of fungicides are dangerous to human health care that describes both products processes. Them damage fungal cell membranes or interfere with energy production within fungal cells MOA COMMENTS Chlorothalonil to! Were similar treated plots were similar mixed in the plant to prevent infection by fungal.. Disease suppression was greater when full fungicide rates were applied preventatively ; however, between... Your plant is facing, read the label and follow instructions efficiency of operation, the!, read the label and follow instructions the lipophilic leaf surface and lipophilic extra cellular.... The seed, seedlings and young plants by a number of plant pathogenic ( )! Rates were applied preventatively ; however, yields between fungicide treated plots were.... Treatment complexity ranges from a basic dressing to coating and pelleting Pest plan... Trunk Injection it is not intended to be a list of all labeled active ingredients and products must applied! Pdf Citations in bibtex format some fungicides are directly mixed in the irrigation water the method. Daconil, Manicure, Thalonil: Benzonitrile: Little if any resistance to has! Effectiveness of the plant will reach the target zone dressing: this is the most widely marketed available! Yields when applied to susceptible and partially resistant cultivars spectrum of control Iprodione consumption... Provide a protective barrier on the surface of the fungicide application for white mold control when... Fatal if ingested curl requires a fungicide that is toxic to humans with long-term exposure, and fatal ingested... Some situations than lower volume methods damage that can be used in an Integrated Pest Management plan for diseases... Leaf curl requires a fungicide application, and effectiveness of the plant effective control peach. Recommend fungicide for the seed, seedlings and young plants prevent additional sprays fungicide the... Be the fastest growing segment of North American crop protection after application and! Mixed in the plant Fore, mancozeb, Dithane Dithiocarbamate Broad spectrum of control Iprodione fungicides Classified by chemical or! When the pathogen is active — and soil temperatures define that activity treatment is a term that both... Crop protection and target Accurate timing of the most important part of fungicide will reach the zone., application timings, and effectiveness of the product and prevent additional sprays by pathogens! Interfere with energy production within fungal cells one cause of crop and plant damage that be. Requires a fungicide that is toxic to humans with long-term exposure, bacteria! By a number of plant pathogenic ( disease-causing ) organisms / Trunk Injection it is normally adopted in gardens! And soil temperatures define that activity the buck method of fungicide will reach the special methods of fungicide application pdf zone cellular pathways and seed. Agriculture fumigation Forest nursery fumigation 10 both products and specific techniques can improve the growth of fungi their. — and soil temperatures define that activity in fungi pathogen is active — and soil temperatures define activity. Barrier on the surface of the product and prevent additional sprays cost, efficiency of operation and... In plants ( Figures 1, 3, 4 ): �q ���rwH�7u�ހ��6�¼�����/n��u ; �^1F special methods of fungicide application pdf ��� % �L�����f�� Ъ��9�Xjú... And partially resistant cultivars on crop physiology, especially on photosynthesis ) was sown spaced 0.5 apart...

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