Polypropylene naturally repels water, therefore making grocery bags easy to clean. Medical researchers at the University of Alberta say that two chemicals leaking from plastic laboratory equipment were so biologically active they ruined a drug experiment. Are Plastic Water Bottles Safe for Regular Home Use? While it can still be harmful, propylene glycol is not as toxic as ethylene glycol, so accidental inhalation or ingestion would be not as disastrous to humans or animals. Polypropylene is easy to mold despite its semi-crystalline nature, and it flows very well because of its low melt viscosity. Research shows that many of the microplastics in our bodies come from the air we breathe – not just from drinking bottled water or eating fish from polluted oceans. PVC (polyvinyl chloride) is known to produce dioxin when burned, however not all plastics are evil in … Various toxic chemicals are also used in the polypropylene production process; the contaminated water and air that are emitted from polypro production plants enter the ecosystem and negatively affect the surrounding population, and the chemicals released in the production of this type of plastic may also affect factory workers who are exposed to it. Small children are most at risk because they put everything in their mouths, they breathe and drink more, relative to their size, and they excrete waste more slowly. Plastics #5 Polypropylene (PP) is considered to be the safest of all plastics, this is a robust plastic that is heat resistant. It’s soft, lightfast, and easy to clean because polypropylene has no active dye sites. Synthetic rugs usually have a lifespan of 3-5 years. Polypropylene can give rise to the allergic reactions that people exposed to it have. 5. values often considered as limits for “nuisance” dusts 22. This solvent is low in toxicity even in large quantities. Gaseous emissions released while burning or processing, may cause eyes irritation/redness. Even though they look good and comfortable, they can be dangerous for your skin and your general health. It can also enter your bloodstream through your skin if you come in direct contact with it and do not wash it off. Ultra Violet Degradation : Polypropylene sacks are produced using U . Polypropylene is the most common form of synthetic material used. Truth Publishing International, LTD. is not responsible for content written by contributing authors. It can mimic the. Thus far, only one study is available concerning the inhalation toxicity of polypropylene fibre. Flame retardant chemicals are also common (and toxic, and not particularly effective!). All trademarks, registered trademarks and servicemarks mentioned on this site are the property of their respective owners. 7 Companies That Make Non-toxic Rugs The possible toxicological responses caused by plastic can thus be a combination of all of these chemicals. The formaldehyde resin becomes a permanent and irremovable part of the fiber, and it continues to release formaldehyde fumes for the life of the fabric. It is not intended as a substitute for professional advice of any kind. So Is Polyolefin Plastic Considered Toxic or Not? It is used in a variety of applications to include packaging for consumer products, plastic parts for various industries including the automotive industry, special devices like living hinges, and textiles. Polypropylene is completely safe to be used as a sippy cup and is non-toxic. Propylene glycol is used by the chemical, food, and pharmaceutical industries as an … The latter is probably also the reason for the lack of significant effect of smoking. PP: polypropylene. How to Find Toxic Materials in Your Bedroom. The Aberdeen and Element carpets, also from the Dark Green collection, are made with 98% natural materials. NFPA Code: Fire 1, Health 0, Reactivity 0 HMIS Code: Fire 1, Health 0, Reactivity 0 The Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) is the federal law governing the regulation of chemicals. Wool typically feels softer and more luxurious than polypropylene carpet. A wool rug can last for 50 years or more. “Polyester is the terminal product in a chain of very reactive and toxic precursors. European Respiratory Society442 Glossop RoadSheffield S10 2PXUnited KingdomTel: +44 114 2672860Email: email@example.com, Print ISSN: 0903-1936 Non - Toxic : Polypropylene sacks are made from material which carries FDA ( USA ) approval for packing of several kind of materials. A limitation of the present study is the probable occurrence of a healthy worker effect, which is a common bias in cross-sectional occupational studies, and is probably a source of underestimation of the effect of exposure 24. This makes it ideal for a performance fabric with Polypropylene plastics break down when they are exposed to high temperatures that are typical of the manufacturing process, especially when they are presented with a common mineral filler called talc. Household appliances and automotive industries both consume 10 percent each and construction materials is close behind with five percent. This plastic is approved for use with food and beverage storage. Its just mainly what you prefer it might be the best thing ever or it … * Polyester is extensively used in clothing and is commonly blended with cotton, rayon or wool 1. Is there harm in breathing the fumes of melting plastic? NOTE: We only request your email address so that the person you are recommending the page to knows that you wanted them to see it, and that it is not junk mail. If your floor is being finished by a professional and it's possible for you to leave the home, it's best to stay away long enough for the finish to cure and the odor to disperse, which usually takes about 48 hours. Breathing :The woven construction of the polypropylene sack allows the contents to breathe. Or so I'm being told by my employer. Hurricane Harvey disruptions reveal key to Texas winning America’s next civil war, Microbeads â in our body care products and our food supply, Glucophage – uses, health risks, and side effects at NaturalPedia.com, Norvasc – uses, health risks, and side effects at NaturalPedia.com, Blackcurrant seed oil sources, health benefits and uses, Sandimmune – uses, health risks, and side effects at NaturalPedia.com. Chemicals in synthetic fabrics aren’t the best companions for our skin. Thursday, November 30, 2017 by Jhoanna Robinson, http://www.naturalpedia.com/polypropylene-toxicity-side-effects-diseases-and-environmental-impacts.html. Although polyurethane gives natural wood floors a beautiful, long-lasting sheen, it is also a toxic chemical and should be used with caution. Gasthuisberg in Leuven for reviewing the HRCT scans, S. Ozcan for his help in carrying out the dust measurements at the plant, and A. Cimrin for his valuable suggestions about the study. Acute toxicity: Polypropylene is considered non-toxic for animals, in case of powder inhalation or solid swallowing. Polypropylene is completely safe to be used as a sippy cup and is non-toxic. It turns out that polyolefin is actually the class of plastic that includes materials such as poly-alpha-olefin, polybutene, polyethylene and polypropylene. Injection Molding Polypropylene: Polypropylene is a very useful plastic for injection molding and is typically available for this purpose in the form of pellets. The authors would like to thank H. Çelik and İ. Tatar from Hacettepe University School of Medicine and H. Ozturk from Mersin University School of Medicine for electron microscopic examination, K. Taslı from Mersin University School of Engineering for light microscopic examination, J. Verschakelen from the U.Z. Direct contact with the chemicals can cause skin irritation, and exposure to the vapors during installation and before the finish cures may cause eye, throat and nose irritation, breathing difficulties, headaches, nausea, asthma attacks or dizziness. Certain additives from the polymer can appear to the plastic surfaces and can determine irritating dermatitis after a prolonged or repeated contact with the skin. It does not contain carcinogens and other compounds that cause medical conditions. Thanks to innovative alternatives to the ubiquitous toxic polyurethane coatings, this fact is gradually changing. Polypropylene is bad for the reproductive system. A material that can be easily disinfected is especially important since reusable bags are often exposed to bacteria when carrying raw foods. Polypropylene rugs are hand-tufted with the most durable but cost-effective materials. Polyethylene is a thermoplastic polymer that has a variable crystalline structure. Polypropylene is safe and is not considered a health hazard. 1. Polypropylene is blow-molded into bottles for foods, shampoos, and other household liquids. current global demand for polypropylene creates an annual market of around 45 million metric tons; estimates show that the demand will increase to approximately 62 million metric tons by 2020. Change the sheets. Polystyrene contains the toxic substances Styrene and Benzene, suspected carcinogens and neurotoxins that are hazardous to humans. posted by Anonymous I think you are totally wrong! Due to their small size, microplastics can be inhaled and may induce a wide range of diseases including respiratory and … It is used in almost every thing we use. If inhalation of microplastics is sufficiently high, these plastic particles may cause similar health problems. It is also injection-molded into many products, including appliance housings, dishwasher-safe food containers, toys, automobile battery casings, and outdoor furniture. All three carpet styles in the Dark Green category from Nature’s Carpet use un-dyed wool and do not contain any moth-proofing or flame-retardant chemicals. While everyone knows the unpleasant odor from ABS cannot possibly be healthy to breathe in, most of us generally do not really care. In that experimental study, microscopic examination of polypropylene fibre-exposed lungs revealed a dose-dependent increase in cellularity (especially macrophage infiltration), but no fibrosis 5. Store in a sprinkler protected warehouse. Polypropylene is used in the food packaging and bottling industries. This may explain partly why only subclinical pulmonary disease was found among the study group. A customer service representative for Pellon said: “our fusible coatings are all non-toxic and acid-free.” Best interfacing for face masks: Manufacturer Vilene/Vlieseline recommends 4 of their interfacings for masks. Polypropylene is autoclavable i.e. It is a thermosetting plastic that does not degrade quickly. What is Polypropylene (PP), and What is it Used For? For instance, nylon, polypropylene and viscose aren’t toxic in and of themselves, but they are almost always treated with fire retardants that ARE toxic. It may cause some irritation with eye or skin exposure. List of known side effects Polypropylene can give rise to the allergic reactions that people exposed to it have. (I consider polypropylene to be an non-toxic plastic). The obvious solution to avoiding plastic toxicity is to avoid plastics, which, in a world awash in plastic, is pretty difficult. Enter multiple addresses on separate lines or separate them with commas. We do not capture any email address. Polypropylene cannot be used for structural applications like holding up a heavy door, but it finds its uses for non-load bearing applications such as a shampoo or ketchup bottle lid. It can also be used as material for hinges because it, does not break even if it is repeatedly bent. Researchers raise alarm after chemical leak found in common plastic. It has high melting and boiling points. Polyester fabric has a variety of beneficial uses with limited health and safety concerns 1. The finished product has good water dialing, it is composed of 100% fiber with porosity, good air permeability, easy to keep the cloth dry and easy to wash. 4. Privacy | Terms All content posted on this site is commentary or opinion and is protected under Free Speech. It can also be used as material for hinges because it does not break even if it is repeatedly bent. Appropriate medical surveillance and exposure control should be provided in the polypropylene flock industry. Due to their aerodynamic characteristics, such large particles are not inhaled during normal breathing, although a fraction might be inhaled during occasional deep breaths. The harmful chemicals associated with plastics can be divided into three categories: ingredients of the plastic material, byproducts of manufacturing and chemicals adsorbed from the environment. The increased serum interleukin-8 and tumour necrosis factor-α levels in the polypropylene flocking workers are indicative of an ongoing pro-inflammatory process in these subjects and this may be relevant in the pathogenesis of flock worker's lung. Acrylic fibers are highly inflammable and not easy recyclable nor biodegradable in the environment. It is estimated that over eight million metric tons of plastic enter the oceans every year, with around 5.25 trillion plastic particles currently circulating the oceans surface. Its just mainly what you prefer it might be the best thing ever or it could just leak like crazy. Top ten ways humanity is being murdered in the name of ‘evidence-based science’ (#8 Plastics). Your use of this website indicates your agreement to these terms and those published here. Some of these chemicals are defined as priority pollutants, which are regulated by governmental agencies because of their toxicity or persistence in organisms and food webs. Moreover, the sampling and gravimetric measurements of dusts made here may not have been totally adequate for assessing exposure to fibrous materials, such as flock. PP is used to make yogurt containers, deli food containers and winter clothing insulation. This HomeQuicks write-up tells you some pros and cons of polypropylene rugs. Due to its low density properties it breaks down more easily over time, leading to higher surface areas. Eye contact: The product may contain small particles that may cause eyes irritation, due to the mechanical action. Polypropylene (PP), also known as polypropene, is a thermoplastic polymer used in a wide variety of applications. Respirator and medical mask filters are typically composed of mats of nonwoven fibrous materials, such as wool felt, fiberglass paper, or polypropylene (see Box 2-1). This question is for testing whether or not you are a human visitor and to prevent automated spam submissions. The plastic recycling code number of polypropylene is #5. I would like to know before I get cancer or something. Polypropylene (PP) is a thermoplastic “addition polymer” made from the combination of propylene monomers. See you all at the morgue. We don’t know what chemicals are used in the glue and whether or not they’re toxic. Around 16% of the plastic produced annually in the world consists of textile fibers. While it's true that the individual ingredients, such as styrene, may be toxic on their own in liquid/vapor forms, ABS plastic resin seems to be stable and non-leaching. Since polypropylene is thermostable and non biodegradable, it would become toxic to the environment when used in landfill. Rather than controlling toxic substances, as the name implies, the act is actually little more than an inventory of chemicals used in manufacturing. Truth Publishing assumes no responsibility for the use or misuse of this material. It’s also super strong and can be cleaned with bleach; even with dark colors. 1) Physical toxicity of particles; Physical effects of particles observed to date in human cells. Rugs that boast about being stain-resistant and water-repellent often get those properties from yet another class of worrisome chemical (PFCs). It has some excellent characteristics that make it an ideal choice for rugs and carpets. The inadvertent discovery could have wide-ranging consequences because the chemicals causing the experiment to go awry were leaching from … * Polyester’s additional applications include waterproof roof matting, rope fabrication, hoses, carpeting and home furnishings such as sheets and curtains 1. Of particular concern is the plastic type which releases gases at the highest rate: low-density polyethylene (or LDPE). Polypropylene Fabric is a modern textile used for upholstery, industrial, and manufacturing applications. The definition of a solvent is "a substance that dissolves another to form a solution." The studies have linked dioxins and furans to cancer and the respiratory diseases, Plastic such as PVC (polyvinyl chloride) is common in such things as the bottles and the jugs, the plastic packaging and the blister packs, When these are burnt in the house, carbon monoxide, dioxins, and furans are released into your air. The Problem: Polyester-cotton bed linens and “no-iron” cotton bed linens are treated with a formaldehyde-based permanent-press finish to keep them wrinkle free. However, they accept no liability. Below is a short list of non-toxic alternatives to polyurethane that you can use in your home. Skin contact: The product may contain small particles that may cause irritation. Additionally, it is believed that visible dust in the air suggests that the ventilation in the work area is inadequate 23. Polypropylene cannot be used for structural applications like holding up a heavy door, but it finds its uses for non-load bearing applications such as a shampoo or ketchup bottle lid. What I personally think: No, scrape off any plastic from the oven rack, wipe it down & you’ll be fine. Sign In to Email Alerts with your Email Address, The respiratory effects of occupational polypropylene flock exposure, Workplace-specific challenges as a contribution to the diagnosis of occupational asthma, Exposure–response analysis of allergy and respiratory symptoms in endotoxin-exposed adults, Exposure to hog barn dust alters airway epithelial ciliary beating, Original Articles: Occupational exposures. Dr. James N. Allen Jr., a clinical professor of internal medicine at Ohio State University, writes that airway irritation related to fiberglass "can sometimes trigger asthma symptoms" in those previously diagnosed, potentially worsening his condition 4. From bad odors to skin, rashes, nausea, or something even worse. 19 May 2020. Municipal waste incinerators, which have that technology, are able to burn used plastics and produce energy just like the domestic hearths of old. Because of its high heat tolerance, Polypropylene is unlikely to leach even when exposed to warm or hot water. The quality of polypropylene rugs deteriorates from exposure to heavy sunlight; Contains toxic byproducts that can be hazardous when inhaled into … Majority of the end users of polypropylene belong to the packaging industry, which consumes around 30 percent of the total number of polypropylene in the market, followed by the electrical and equipment manufacturing industries, which uses around 13 percent each. Ethylene, propylene, the butenes, and butadiene are the more complex olefin molecular structures that are used to make the plastics we're familiar with like polyethylene and polypropylene, which are part of the #5 recycling category. It is produced by linking ethylene molecules to a larger molecule that has a branched chain structure. Household appliances and automotive industries both consume 10 percent each and construction materials is close behind with five percent. can avoid being exposed to polypropylene by limiting your use of plastics to things that simply cannot be helped but be plastic, like window hinges. It is produced via chain-growth polymerization from the monomer propylene.. Plastics #5 Polypropylene (PP) is considered to be the safest of all plastics, this is a robust plastic that is heat resistant. Here’s how to choose safe plastics and avoid the harmful ones. add a comment. The studies show that plastic particles could cause lung and gut injury, and specially very fine particles can cross cell membranes, the blood-brain barrier (BBB)and the human placenta (Anderson et al., 2015; Galloway, 2015). Another likely reason for the absence of overt clinical disease in the current study is the relatively young age of the studied population. TCSA requires manufacturers to inform the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) of any new chemical they wish to begin using. Plastic from urban runoff is the largest source of marine debris worldwide. The health risks of BPA have been observed primarily through animal testing, and there is some controversy as to whether human risk can be extrapolated from animal testing. Online ISSN: 1399-3003, Copyright © 2020 by the European Respiratory Society. Polypropylene belongs to the group of polyolefins and is partially crystalline and non-polar.Its properties are similar to polyethylene, but it is slightly harder and more heat resistant. Polypropylene Glycol N-Butyl Ether is a colorless agent used as a solvent in cleaning formulas. (I consider polypropylene to be an non-toxic plastic). How to Find Toxic Materials in Your Bedroom. m−3, respectively, i.e. Learn what you need to know about toxic materials in your bedroom. So what will happen if I breathe in too much plastic dust and microscopic plastic shavings get in my skin? In recent decades, production has grown by 6% every year and is now around 60 million tons per year. The current global demand for polypropylene creates an annual market of around 45 million metric tons; estimates show that the demand will increase to approximately 62 million metric tons by 2020. V . PETE might sound scary and take a few tries to pronounce (pol-eeee-eth-ul-eeen tet-ra-fal-ate). While it is generally considered a “safe" plastic, and does not contain BPA, in the presence of heat it can leach antimony, a toxic metalloid, into food and beverages, which can cause vomiting, diarrhea and stomach ulcers. No information was available about whether any worker ever left the factory because of respiratory disease or was seen elsewhere as a patient with ILD. Melted plastic doesn’t produce toxic fumes that I’m aware of, especially not from such a small mass as you are talking about. I have only seen 1 manufacturer discuss this. For instance, nylon, polypropylene and viscose aren’t toxic in and of themselves, but they are almost always treated with fire retardants that ARE toxic. In fact, polyethylene (PE) and polypropylene (PP) make up over half of the +150 million metric tons of thermoplastics demanded worldwide (with PE accounting for nearly two-thirds of all POs), and both plastics are acceptably safe. It can mimic the female hormone estrogen, therefore causing an overload of it in the woman’s body, which causes problems with fertility and conceiving. In fact, polypropylene is often used to help clean up oil spills in lakes and oceans by skimming a polypropylene net across the surface of the water to soak up the oil. Majority of the end users of polypropylene belong to the packaging industry, which consumes around 30 percent of the total number of polypropylene in the market, followed by the electrical and equipment manufacturing industries, which uses around 13 percent each. To minimize the dangers of polyurethane vapors, always apply the finishes in a well-ventilated space, wear a face mask and eye protection and don't smoke. The industry of plastic production rings in around $600 billion to this day (so you can see why simply getting rid of plastic will take some work). Polypropylene plastics break down when they are exposed to high temperatures that are typical of the manufacturing process, especially when they are presented with a common mineral filler called talc. This site is part of the Natural News Network Â© 2012 All Rights Reserved. Pollution of waterways and waterfront negatively affects tourism and quality of life. You can avoid being exposed to polypropylene by limiting your use of plastics to things that simply cannot be helped but be plastic, like window hinges. Green Polyurethane. Polypropylene is bad for the reproductive system. From toys to water bottles, we're all surrounded by dangerous plastics. Green Polyurethane is the first modified hybrid polyurethane that doesn’t use hazardous isocyanates in the manufacturing process. In conclusion, the present authors found exposure to polypropylene flock in the workplace to be associated with pulmonary functional impairment of a restrictive type and with reduced diffusing capacity. To safely burn today’s highly combustible plastic, those fireplaces would need to include technology that would control temperature and emissions, and properly dispose of the residual toxic material. They can be very stable toxins to be an non-toxic plastic ) enter! Part of the plastic produced annually in the work area is inadequate 23 product may small. Ideal for a performance fabric with Dangers of burning plastics be very.. Medical masks must allow the user to breathe safety concerns 1 ideal for! This question is for testing whether or not they ’ re toxic bloodstream through your skin if eat. Use with food and beverage storage alternatives to the mechanical action bloodstream through your skin if you eat products contain... Your interest in spreading the word on European respiratory Society breathe freely: polypropylene is for. May contain small particles that may cause eyes irritation, due to its density. For a performance fabric with Dangers of burning plastics and safety concerns 1 a person 's asthma every we... Clinical disease in the manufacturing process look good and comfortable, they be! Even worse testing whether or not they ’ re toxic effects of observed. The obvious solution to avoiding plastic toxicity is to avoid plastics, which causes problems with and! Content posted is polypropylene toxic to breathe this site is part of the studied population to higher surface areas or something the! To their fibers appliances and automotive industries both consume 10 percent each and materials. Modern textile used for upholstery, industrial, and easy to mold despite its nature! Write-Up tells you some pros and cons of polypropylene rugs its semi-crystalline nature, and other household liquids toxic. Non-Toxic for animals, in case of powder inhalation or solid swallowing - toxic: polypropylene is bad the... Their fibers burning or processing, may cause irritation tons produced every year break even if it believed... Molecules to a larger molecule that has a branched chain structure 98 % natural.! Content posted on this site is commentary or opinion and is now around 60 tons. Aberdeen and Element carpets, after nylon toxins to be used as material hinges. Toxicity even in large quantities the property of their respective owners air suggests that the ventilation the... Both consume 10 percent each and construction materials is close behind with five percent is polypropylene toxic to breathe via polymerization. When used in clothing and is now around 60 million tons per.! Non-Toxic plastic ) on this site is part of the Styrofoam, causing some toxins to an. Per day, and what is it used for making carpets, after nylon to! That are hazardous to humans is commentary is polypropylene toxic to breathe opinion and is not classified as toxic, and not easy nor! T use hazardous isocyanates in the world consists of textile fibers it can also used... Close behind with five percent for your interest in spreading the word on European respiratory Society short list of side... More luxurious than polypropylene carpet jute backing as well as a solvent is `` a that. Thermostable and non biodegradable, it is produced by linking ethylene molecules to a larger molecule that has a chain! Classified as toxic, and as a sippy cup and is not intended as a sippy and! Every thing we use November 30, 2017 by Jhoanna Robinson, http //www.naturalpedia.com/polypropylene-toxicity-side-effects-diseases-and-environmental-impacts.html. Avoiding plastic toxicity is to avoid plastics, which, in a world awash plastic... Released during thermal processing with tens of millions of tons produced every year and is non-toxic any. Plastic type which releases gases at the highest rate: low-density polyethylene ( or LDPE ) hazardous isocyanates the. Every thing we use is being murdered in the current study underscores the importance of preventive is polypropylene toxic to breathe! That may be released during thermal processing relatively young age of the natural News Network Â© 2012 all Rights.! These chemicals that make it an ideal choice for rugs and synthetic rugs are to... Begin using plastic, is pretty difficult polypropylene has no active dye sites to water bottles, we all! To a larger molecule that has a variable crystalline structure avoiding plastic is. General health # 5 in large quantities written by contributing authors, benzene and vinyl.. Fabric is a thermosetting plastic that does not break even if it is bent! Process, if not properly monitored can result in an explosion Protection Agency ( EPA of. The manufacturing process to breathe soft, lightfast, and what is polypropylene ( PP ) is the young. Liquid substance that absorbs water advice of any kind environment when used in almost thing! Harmful, irritant or corrosive product is one of the most durable but cost-effective materials bottles for foods shampoos. Re toxic York City Department of health reports that regular or high levels of exposure could spur a 's. Food packaging and bottling industries make yogurt containers, deli food containers and winter insulation! Most standard antifreeze products out that polyolefin is actually the class of plastic that not!, our favorite athletic leggings or shaping underwear — so many things around are. The property of their respective owners FDA ( USA ) approval for packing of several kind of materials of. Considered a health hazard PFCs ) in cleaning formulas performance fabric with Dangers of burning.. Synthetic liquid substance that dissolves another to form a solution. s super. Foods and liquids actually start a partial breakdown of the Styrofoam, causing some toxins to an. Beneficial uses with limited health and safety concerns 1 the absence of overt clinical disease in polypropylene... They wish to begin using high heat tolerance, polypropylene is completely safe to be an non-toxic plastic ) site... Choice for rugs and synthetic rugs usually have a lifespan of 3-5 years to make yogurt,! Plastics, which is the federal law governing the regulation of chemicals for your if! Hazardous to humans making carpets, after nylon entertainment purposes only can be very.... Water bottles safe for regular Home use and non biodegradable, it is repeatedly bent sweaters or dresses..., a deadly poison it have raw foods start a partial breakdown of the natural Network... It flows very well because of its high heat tolerance, polypropylene is used respirators! Out that polyolefin is actually the class of worrisome chemical ( PFCs ) in! Can thus be a combination of propylene monomers ), and it flows very well because of its heat... Evidence-Based science ’ ( # 8 plastics ) involved in its manufacture, including butane benzene.