Planting and consuming golden rice alongside other interventions (like UNICEF’s supplement program) will make more of a difference than any one intervention alone. When the Golden Rice Project was first announced, it was advertised as an exciting solution to the prevalence VAD in developing countries. Even though these very minimal risks are still discussed in popular discourse, many scientists now agree that genetically modified crops are just as safe to consume and to plant as traditional crops. Genetically Modified Organisms: The “Golden Rice” Debate, Laureates Letter Supporting Precision Agriculture (GMOs), Disembedding grain: Golden Rice, the Green Revolution, and heirloom seeds in the Philippines, Case Study: Golden Rice Iowa State University, Nuffield Council on Bioethics: "Genetically modified crops: the ethical and social issues", "Asian Farmers and Scientists Say No to GMO Golden Rice", "Philippines: farmers call to stop 'Golden Rice' trials", "My First "Golden" Harvest: A Rice Farmer in the Philippines Tells His Story", http://books.irri.org/9712201597_content.pdf, https://www.scu.edu/ethics/focus-areas/bioethics/resources/genetically-modified-food/, Appreciate that malnutrition is a global health problem, Learn how “Golden Rice” seeks to solve malnutrition in developing countries, Discuss ethical questions raised by “Golden Rice” and other GMOs, What is “Golden Rice?” What issues is the. Nevertheless, time passed without much headlining news from the Golden Rice Project, until June 2016, when 110 Laureates (out of the living 296 Nobel Laureates) among 5591 scientists and citizens signed a letter against Greenpeace’s opposition to genetically modified organisms (GMOs) and in support of GMOs. Plant Cell 14:333-342. Bayer CropScience is attempting to get their latest variety (LL62) approved for use in the EU. 2. They do not share the opposition’s skepticism as to whether golden rice would be an effective solution. They are not focusing on helping the consumer, but rather they represent the radical fight against technology and political success. “Genetically modified crops: the ethical and social issues” May 1999. Golden Rice was genetically engineered to include beta-carotene, a chemical that our bodies can use to produce vitamin A. The results showed the potential for golden rice to have a more advantageous bioconversion rate compared to any other biofortified crop, and while supplying 50% of the Recommended Dietary Allowance of vitamin A from a cup of rice, consumed daily. Moreover, CRTI does not form poly-cis-configured intermediates, as plant desaturases do (Bartley et al., 1999), and therefore, cis-trans isomerases (cf Fig. This can be overcome by either increasing the amount of the rate-limiting enzyme or by using one that is more active. Summarize the main arguments of the two sides in the Golden Rice Debate. RB, T-DNA right border sequence; Glu, rice endosperm-specific glutelin promoter; CrtI, carotene desaturase from Pantoea ananas; tpSSU, pea ribulose bis-phosphate carboxylase small subunit transit peptide for chloroplast localisation; nos, nopaline synthase terminator; Psy, phytoene synthase gene from Narcissus pseudonarcissus (GR1) or Zea mays (GR2); Ubi1, maize polyubiquitin promoter; Pmi, phosphomannose isomerase gene from E. coli for positive selection (GR2); LB, T-DNA left border sequence. A consequentialist ethical framework says that we should look at whether planting golden rice will bring about more good, or more harm. This brief may be used in life science or social studies classes during topics including. Golden Rice was engineered from normal rice by Ingo Potrykus and Peter Beyer in the 1990s to help improve human health. On a different note, there are possible socioeconomic implications that genetically modified foods can have on developing countries. Rabbani S, Beyer P, Lintig Jv, Hugueney P, Kleinig H (1998) Induced beta-carotene synthesis driven by triacylglycerol deposition in the unicellular alga. LibertyLink rice is resistant to glufosinate(the active chemical in Liberty herbicide). Carotenoids and their derivatives include a vast number of molecules and accordingly a great number of enzymes and cofactors. Then there are concerns about the employment of the Golden Rice Project such as the cost to set up, technology transfer, the accessibility of the project, the sustainability and credibility of the rice, and stable support from governments (MASIPAG). Instead, α- and β-carotene are found together with variable amounts of oxygenated carotenoids (xanthophylls), such as lutein and zeaxanthin. Currently Golden Rice Project has 16 national rice research institutions under the Golden Rice Humanitarian Board including those in Bangladesh, China, Indonesia, India, South Africa, The Philippines, and Vietnam. This is where the name âgolden riceâ derives from as the synthesis of beta-carotene turns the rice yellow. 2) Curriculum Integration Ideas Introduction of the enzymes phytoene-synthase and the bacterial desaturase CRTI fills the biosynthetic gap created by the absence of the blue elements. Compounds derived from this important pathway include plant hormones, like abscisic acid, the strigolactones and gibberellins. At the end, he gave his enthusiastic support to the development and expansion of golden rice. International Rice Research Institute’s mission is to objectively evaluate the new proposed resolutions that biotechnology may offer the rice industry, and they work with the National Agricultural Research system to test the sustainability of the strategies in different countries. Ironically, the unheard voices are those of the inhabitants of the developing countries, the intended receivers of the proposed resolutions in the fight against micronutrient malnutrition. Resistance to GM crops exists worldwide. Golden rice is a genetically engineered variety of rice ( Oryza sativa ). In order to create golden rice, scientist inserted four genes into the rice genome encoding the enzymes phytoene synthase, phytoene desaturase, zeta-carotenedesaturase, and lycopene beta-cyclase. Tocopherols (vitamin E), chlorophylls and quinones employ the pathway intermediate GGPP as a building block for their synthesis. He gave his approval, saying that like other farmers in countless countries dreaming that their crops feed their families, communities, and countries with healthy food, golden rice meets his needs. Bartley GE, Scolnik PA, Beyer P (1999) Two. Beta carotene is convereted into Vitamin A when metabolized by the human body. Could the crops negatively impact the environment and possibly its biodiversity? Rockefeller Foundation supported their goal to provide a sustainable biofortification approach to combat vitamin A deficiencies in developing countries. The main reason for milling is to remove the oil-rich aleurone layer, which turns rancid upon storage, especially in tropical and subtropical areas. Between 1993 and 1999, collaborative research between Peter Beyer and Prof Peter Bramley (Royal Holloway College, UK), was funded through EU networks B102-CT-930400, B104-CT97-2077 and FAIR CT96 1633. We need Vitamin A for healthier skin, immune systems, and vision. For example, UNICEF employs a vitamin A supplementation programs that improves a child’s survival rate by 12-24% with the price of only a few cents. By adding only two genes, a plant phytoene synthase (psy) and a bacterial phytoene desaturase (crt I), the pathway is turned back on and β-carotene consequently accumulates in the grain. This could created inadvertent risks to these species, harming them and possibly biodiversity too (McLean, 2005). PLoS ONE 7:e39550. Greenpeace argues against GMOs for the fear of the advancement of biotechnology; however, when enhanced it could improve conditions in developing countries other than solely micronutrient malnutrition. The amount of golden rice needed for sufficient vitamin A intake would be too great in comparison to the rice available in developing countries. Golden rice is the collective name of rice varieties that are genetically modified to counter vitamin A deficiency in developing countries. These questions remain because of a lack of studies that show the future safety of golden rice in regards to health and the environment. Bayerâs line of herbicide resistant rice is known as LibertyLink. These pests can range from insects to bugs (yes, they arenât the same) and harm your plants. Tian L, DellaPenna D(2004) Progress in understanding the origin and functions of carotenoid hydroxylases in plants. This compound is what gives this grain its yellow-orange or golden color, hence its name. These are precursors to vitamin A which is deficient in the diet It was also doubtful whether Golden Rice would have the necessary precursors for carotene biosynthesis present and available in the grains, with many believing that the whole, multi-step carotenoid biosynthetic pathway was completely absent from the endosperm. “Disembedding grain: Golden Rice, the Green Revolution, and heirloom seeds in the Philippines”, Tang G, Qin J, Dolnikowski GG, Russell RM, Grusak MA. For those interested in scientific details about carotenoids, here's a scientific review that covers the mechanisms controlling (1) the first committed step in phytoene biosynthesis, (2) flux through the branch to synthesis of a- and b-carotenes and (3) metabolic feedback signalling within and between the carotenoid, MEP and ABA pathways; by Christopher Cazzonelli, published in the journal Functional Plant Biology in 2011 (with permission from CSIRO Publishing), Golden Rice Humanitarian Board © 2005-20 | Golden rice is a genetically modified (GM), it is made through genetic manipulation. Their breakthrough showed that only two transgenes were required to turn Golden Rice into a reality (Ye et al., 2000). Contact | Food Allergy Research and Resource Program. European scientists devel-oped the first strain of Golden Rice towards the end of the 1990s. “Golden Rice is an effective source of vitamin A”, Tickell, Oliver. Some raised concerns about small farmers becoming indebted to larger corporations for seeds, exploitation of farmers, health concerns for humans and the environment. Similarly, the expression of CRTI alone did not result in any coloured compounds in the rice endosperm, because of the lack of PSY activity. Finally, supporters of the project consistently point out that anti-golden rice groups also have their own political agenda. This would be a great thing. The Golden Rice Project was first introduced in 1999, when two professors Ingo Potrykus and Peter Beyer, proposed their project to Rockefeller Foundation to genetically engineer rice to increase its nutrients. Consequentialism: Do the benefits outweigh risks? Thus, Golden Rice is yellow because of the activity of intrinsic rice cyclases. The gene responsible for the yellow color like the daffodils is inserted into the rice genome, and causes rice to produce large quantities of Î²-carotene. Finally, there are social and cultural roadblocks. Pests are the biggest obstacles that farmers face when planting rice. A possible threat to biodiversity arises when genetically modified crops breed with wild species (Murnaghan 2016). Clearly, lycopene cyclase activity relies on the expression of the respective rice genes in the endosperm, just as the occasional formation of xanthophylls, catalyzed by the divergent class of β-carotene hydroxylases (for a review, see Tian and DellaPenna, 2004). Biofortification increases the nutritional value of crops. Luckily, with the support of both anti-GMO activists and pro-GMO activists, voices from the developing countries are starting to emerge. In all rice genetic backgrounds tested so far, complementation with these activities is not required to proceed down the pathway. Prof. Ingo Potrykus and Peter Beyer produced genetically engineered rice by introducing three genes associated with the biosynthesis of carotenoid. Golden Rice was first field tested over 10 years ago, but GM controversy has â¦ Biofortification increases the nutritional value in crops. The yellow color of the rice may not be accepted because of different countries’ social and cultural history. According to the institute, this rice variety will not be more expensive than the conventional variety. Thus, scientists used genetic engineering to â¦ As a result, the edible part of rice grains consists of the endosperm, filled with starch granules and protein bodies, but it lacks several essential nutrients for the maintenance of health, such as carotenoidâ¦ This paper provided the proof that β-carotene could be produced in the rice grain. Attitudes and Influences relevant to Golden Riceâs potential use in the Philippines Focussed Group Discussions and Results from four different Agro-Economic Zones of the Philippines to understand attitudes and influences relevant to the adoption and use of Golden Rice conducted by AIM students . The tissue-specific expression of the PDS/ZDS system, instead of CRTI, in rice endosperm resulted in the formation of coloured carotenoids, showing that the rice endosperm provides the complex requirements for the activity of the plant desaturases. Al-Babili S, Hoa TTC, Schaub P (2006) Exploring the potential of the bacterial carotene desaturase CrtI to increase the β-carotene content in. It is generally consumed in its milled form with outer layers (pericarp, tegmen and aleurone layers) removed. The textbook example of biofortification is Golden Rice, genetically engineered to contain high levels of the vitamin A precursor beta-carotene . This redox pathway is especially important in non-green carotenoid-bearing tissues, while the photosynthetic electron transport is thought to play an analogous role in chloroplasts. Even if it didn’t totally eliminate VAD in developing countries, it might make an impact. They point out that there are multiple recourses for malnutrition planned and currently in place, that are cheaper and do not require GMOs, that should make golden rice unnecessary. They argue that even after 24 years of research and billions of dollars spent, the project is still many years away from being released to developing countries. The letter stated, “We call upon Greenpeace to cease and desist in its campaign against Golden Rice specifically, and crops and foods improved through biotechnology in general.”. âGolden Riceâ is the name of a rice that has been genetically engineered (genetically modified or GM) to produce beta carotene, which the body can convert into vitamin A. CRTI employs molecular oxygen directly as an electron acceptor, while the plant enzyme utilizes plastoquinone for this purpose, and is thus linked to and dependent on complex redox-chains (Beyer et al., 1989; Mayer et al., 1990; Nievelstein et al., 1995). Golden rice is genetically modified in order to produce beta carotene, which is not normally produced in rice. Experimentation with PSY genes from different sources identified the maize and rice genes as the most efficient in rice grains (Paine et al., 2005), a result that has was confirmed later at the enzyme level (Welsch et al.,2010). Golden rice may significantly decrease disease morbidity due to VAD in developing countries. Golden Rice – five years on the road – five years to go? It was established that in this case was PSY and not CRTI (Al-Babili et al., 2006). Golden Rice is a public-sector product designed as an additional intervention for VAD. “Bioinformatic analysis of proteins in Golden Rice 2 to assess potential allergenic cross-reactivity.” University of Nebraska. It has been modified by inserting a gene from maize and a gene from bacteria found in soil which allows the plant to biosynthesise beta-carotene in the edible parts of rice. J Nutr 132:506S-510. The World Health Organization estimates that about 250 million preschool children are affected by VAD and about 2.7 million children die because of the deficiency. One solution is to use pesticides and herbicides to keep them at bay. Opponents of this strategy, including Greenpeace, argue that Golden Rice and other genetically modified (GM) crops do not eliminate the true problem of poverty in the developing world . The combined activity of PSY and CRTI leads to the formation of lycopene, which is a red compound, its colour stemming from its undecaene chromophore, as is well established in tomato fruit. Only a small number of carotenoids namely those with at least one unsubstituted β-ionone ring, such as β-carotene have provitamin A activity. Drowning out the voices of the poor impedes our ability to do so. The Golden Rice Project began as a proposed solution for VAD; however, despite the establishment of a Humanitarian Board and abiding by national and international regulations governing GMOs, opposition to the project has blocked the roll-out of the Golden Rice Project in developing countries. For starters, Friends of the Earth and MASIPAG agree that merely planting Golden Rice will not solve the VAD crisis. Beta carotene is convereted into Vitamin A when metabolized by the human body. Schreier PH, Seftor EA, Schell J, Bohnert HJ (1985) The use of nuclear-encoded sequences to direct the light-regulated synthesis and transport of a foreign protein into plant chloroplasts EMBO J 4:25-32. Other Philippine farmers gave contrasting reports, however. Credit: WikiCommons[/caption] What is Golden Rice? 2 May 2006. The voices of farmers are often broadcast by activist organization, which may lead us to wonder: what are the developing country farmers true beliefs? This is the main benefit of golden rice. The Golden Rice Technology A japonica variety of rice was engineered with three genes necessary for the rice grain to produce and store beta-carotene. (MASIPAG). “Philippines: farmers call to stop ‘Golden Rice’ trials”. While some population strata in SE Asia do consume more varied diets, many of the poorest do not, and in fact, in some rural populations rice makes up more than 80% of their daily caloric intake. The second gene encodes a bacterial carotene desaturase (CRTI) that introduces conjugation by adding four double bonds. Biotechnology could improve the productivity and sustainability of developing countries’ agricultural systems, supply greater quantities and availability of micronutrients, and reduce large quantities of chemical inputs in both economically and environmentally sustainable ways (Potrykus, 2001). Engineering the provitamin A (beta-carotene) biosynthetic pathway into (carotenoid-free) rice endosperm. As with human safety concerns, there is the possibility that other animals that eat genetically modified crops will be affected. Methods Enzymol 214:374-385. This could negatively impact poor farmers who cannot compete with large biotech companies for land and a share of the rice market. Deficiency in this vitamin is a leading cause of preventable childhood blindness worldwide, with up to 500,000 children becoming blind every year.. Beta-carotene is converted into vitamin A when metabolized by the human body. The transgenic rice was rich in pro-vitamin A. Grains of transgenic rice is yellow in color due to pro-vitamin A, the rice is commonly known as "golden rice". The yellow color is due to the presence of BETA- CAROTENE, a precursor of VITAMIN A. These efforts led to the development of what we could call the first generation of Golden Rice (after the proof of concept), also known as GR1. This led to the second generation of Golden Rice lines, often referred to as GR2, capable of accumulating up to 37 μg/g carotenoids, of which 31 μg/g was β-carotene, as compared to the first generation, where only 1.6 βg/g were obtained. Studies of the long-term impacts of planting and/or consuming golden rice have been minimal, because it would take decades to really learn anything. Does the crop sustain after long periods between harvest seasons? 2) are not required. Synthesis of lycopene by PSY and CRTI in transgenic plants provides the substrate for these downstream enzymes and consequently enables the formation of the observed products. Golden rice is genetically modified in order to produce beta carotene, which is not normally produced in rice. This changes the colour of the wild rice to a golden colour. “Ethical Concerns and GM Foods.”. Along with the help of his fellow researcher; Swappan Datta, they created the first transgenic rice in the late 1980s. Another source of opposition to the project stems from questions regarding the motives of the Golden Rice Project and its ties to several large biotech industries. Despite opposition, the Golden Rice Project continued to gradually gain support such as the blessing from the Pope and the 2015 Patents for Humanity award (Golden Rice Project). At the time it became evident already that only phytoene synthase and carotene desaturase (CRTI) were needed to get the pathway going, while lycopene cyclase was not required. Against another opposing view, the Golden Rice Project claims to be a sustainable project in contrast to the ongoing supplementation and fortification programs (Potrykus, 2001). Authors of a recent article in the Journal of Agriculture and Human Values, “Disembedding grain: Golden Rice, the Green Revolution, and heirloom seeds in the Philippines,” argue that opposition from anti-GMO activists is not to blame for the lack of progress on the Golden Rice Project. Its structure has been partially resolved and the reaction mechanism investigated (Schaub et al., 2012). Golden Rice has an engineered multi-gene biochemical pathway in its genome. Mayer M, Beyer P, Kleinig H (1990) Quinone compounds are able to replace molecular oxygen as terminal electron acceptor in phytoene desaturation in chromoplasts of, Nievelstein V, Vandekerchove J, Tadros M, Lintig J, Nitschke W, Beyer P (1995) Carotene desaturation is linked to a respiratory redox pathway in, Paine JA, Shipton CA, Chaggar S, Howells RM, Kennedy MJ, Vernon G, Wright SY, Hinchliffe E, Adams JL, Silverstone AL, Drake R (2005). 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