At that time, the tide of emigration had moved east to the mines of Nevada at Virginia City and Gold Hill, and Dr. Strong, with others, was interested in a possible wagon route through Dutch Flat and over the Donner Pass in order to divert some of the eastbound traffic through his home town. Courtesy of the Mike Bentley Collection. The letter from Mr. Storey has been quoted in full, as it gives a good picture of the type of man, who, in command of a large organization, drove the pioneer railroad across mountains and deserts to a connection with the Union Pacific. Strobridge, who lived with his wife in a box car along the line, but was everywhere on the road, gained the reputation of being a hard-driving, taskmaster, ruthless in his treatment of men, especially of the Chinese. His work, though, laid the foundation for the later bills that were passed in 1862. Theodore Dehone Judah was born in Bridgeport, Connecticut, on March 4, 1826, and he died in New York, November 2, 1863, at thirty-seven years of age. His father was an Episcopal clergyman who moved his family to Troy, New York, when the son was still a baby. Theodore Judah, a civil engineer and one of the Central Pacific's founders, figured out a pathway through California's treacherous Sierra Nevada range, lobbied Congress to fund the transcontinental railroad, and in 1861 assembled a group of investors to finance it. On January 1, 1857, Judah published a pamphlet in Washington entitled, "A Practical Plan for Building the Pacific Railroad, by T. D. Judah, Civil Engineer, San Francisco," in which he outlined the substance of a railroad project to be built by private enterprise without government aid. The two men went over the route across the mountains in the fall of 1860, and on their return, Judah prepared the engineering data at Dr. Strong's store in Dutch Flat. There were four children. He was serving as vice president of the Union Pacific railroad (UP) in 1869 when it was connected with the Central Pacific railroad at Promontory Summit in Utah territory. He then moved west to Port Washington, an inspiring town in Wisconsin, where he practiced law for four years until fire consumed part of the town, together with Stanford's law library, papers, and other belongings. He taught as an assistant professor of surgery for a brief period before quitting the field of medicine altogether. The man whose activities form a part of the history of California for more than three decades and whose name is perpetuated in the great university that he founded and endowed, was born March 9, 1824, the fourth son of a family of seven sons and one daughter. After the completion of the Central Pacific, Huntington carried on the work of building branch roads, of which the road to Portland, Oregon, was an example, and of extending the Southern Pacific Railroad through California, Arizona, and New Mexico to a junction with Tom Scott's Texas Pacific at El Paso, Texas, in 1883. There he lived at Ottawa with his family, securing such primary education as Was then available. Later he was with the Peoria and Bureau Valley Railroad, then with the Rock Island and Peoria, and finally with the Burlington and Missouri River Railroad. In July, Judah made what was his last report to the directors. . On October 5, 1885, Thomas C. Durant passed away in Warren County, New York, at the age of 65. Before the Central Pacific Railroad gave shape to the village, Americans had already settled in the area and began farming. Dr. Strong secured a number of stock subscriptions and Judah prepared a pamphlet entitled "Central Pacific Railroad to California," which was published in San Francisco on November 10, 1860. He was opposed to their employment at first, but soon recognized their many valuable traits and at one time had as many as 15,000 under his charge. The line was projected to run from Sacramento to Benicia. Finally, in 1890, Huntington ousted Stanford from the presidency of the Southern Pacific and assumed the position himself. Strobridge resisted, but in vain, and soon the two men were together again building railroad as they had done over many years in the past. He set up and was initially in charge of the Crédit Mobilier of America, but brothers Oliver and Oakes Ames wrested control of the company away from him. While in Greenfield, Massachusetts, on his railroad work, he met Anna Ferona Pierce, daughter of a local merchant, and they were married May 10, 1847, twenty-two years to the day before the completion of the Pacific Railroad on which Judah expended the greatest years of his career. Owing to the special nature of railroad bridges, and to a certain extent railroad buildings of various kinds, it is customary to place one man in charge of these structures. The results were undoubtedly satisfactory as the appointments were excellent, and it is probable that the old gentleman would have been surprised if it were suggested that the directors liked to help direct.". In the AMC series ‘Hell on Wheels’ (2011-16), Durant is played by the Irish actor Colm Meaney. HE CONVINCED FOUR SACRA- MENTO MERCHANTS THAT HIS PLAN WAS PRACTICABLE AND ENLISTED THEIR HELP. Crocker was one of the group that formed the Central Pacific Railroad Company, but when he took the first contract for building the line out of Sacramento he resigned from the directorate. After Judah had left the road, it was extended northward along the base of the mountains as far as Lincoln. The older road was heavily bonded and since the government bonds would not be available, the worn rails of English make would have to be replaced with American iron and much repair work was necessary. Judah arranged to go East and he left in September. He then continued to live on his farm and after 1889 took no active part in construction matters. The second in order of precedence of the four Associates was born in the village of Harwinton, Connecticut, on October 28, 1821, and died at his camp on Raquette Lake, New York, August 13, 1900. The Central Pacific Railroad was the company responsible for building the western segment of the transcontinental railroad. Ultimately, he managed to trade $2.18 million of UP stock to subscribers. In this pamphlet he said: "Confident of the existence of a practical route across the Sierra Nevada Mountains, nearer and more direct than the pro. In the year 1882, this writer, as a telegraph boy, clad in a bright blue uniform with brass buttons, delivered messages to the firm of Huntington, Hopkins and Co. In justice to them, however, it must be said that there was not much they could do. This referred to the changed line from Dutch Flat as located by Montague. Leland Stanford – One of the Big Four co-founders of the Central Pacific Railroad, president of the Southern Pacific Railroad, governor of California, and founder of Stanford University Arthur Stilwell – Founder of the Kansas City Southern Railway, as well as several cities, among them Port Arthur, TX which is named after Stilwell. However, as with many of the thousands of young men of that time, the discovery of gold in California called to Crocker. Judah returned to California convinced that nothing could be accomplished in Congress until an actual project was outlined, with proper surveys, estimates, and organization. In 1836 the family, including another son, John, moved to Rockford, Illinois, where, like thousands of other families of that time, they engaged in farming the new land. In 1859, Montague with three companions joined the rush to the Colorado gold mines, commonly called the "Pikes Peak or Bust" rush. In the final 12 years of his life, he had to deal with multiple lawsuits from embittered partners and investors. The roads were connected in May, 1869, and Mr. Strobridge then settled on a farm near Hayward, California. The UPRR main line started in Council Bluffs, Iowa and moved west to link up with the Central Pacific Railroad line, which was built eastward from Sacramento. The Sacramento Union, headed an article in November: "Death of a Distinguished Engineer." From that time on, Crocker was active in construction work on the lines that later became the Southern Pacific. They were all merchants and not railroad builders, and at that time the government help, from the nature of the law, was of little or no benefit. It Was the need for service of this kind that led to the employment of George E. Gray on the Central Pacific. Subsequently, the Union Pacific's establishment is usually credited to its largest stockholder Doctor Thomas Clark (T.C.) Industrialist. Like the other routes formerly examined, they were judged to be markedly inferior to the selected route via Donner Pass and the Truckee River. Then in 1864 he journeyed south to California, and in 1865 obtained work on the Central Pacific under Strobridge, with whom he remained one month. By the time the railroad project was brought to his attention, Stanford was a man of considerable wealth, and his grocery and mining supply business was making a good deal of money. His father was a merchant. The decision was correct, but much criticism was voiced against Judah by the owners of the older road, who wanted to sell out. > Richard L. Wiltshire writes that this book The First Transcontinental Railroad (1950), which was actually finished by his daughter [Bertha Galloway Foster] (my grandmother) after Mr. Galloway's death in 1943. The Judah monument at Sacramento, which was started and completed by W. H. Kirkbride, chief engineer of the Southern Pacific Company, was dedicated at a meeting of the American Society of Civil Engineers on April 26, 1930, and the completed Monument was unveiled in February, 1931. Herbert Hoover was a member of its first class. In his later years, Stanford's interest in other things besides railroads became evident. Charles Crocker's forte was his ability to organize the construction forces of the railroad to produce the best results. I called upon him about 1897 and found him well and hearty, although nearly blind. New York-native Henry Huntington (1850-1927), nephew of Collis P., worked on many of his uncle's far-flung railroad ventures, in the East and West. Evidently the choice was a good one, for Samuel Montague continued in that position during the construction of the line and for a number of years thereafter, first as acting chief engineer, and later as chief engineer. In his later years Collis Huntington indulged a taste for a few interests other than work. It was agreed that a corporation should be formed and articles were written with that end in view. Many stories have been told about his character and, as is usual, they have lost nothing in the telling. Big Four Take Charge of Central Pacific. JUDAH DIED NOVEMBER 2,1863. William Hood, who as a young man on the engineering force of the Central Pacific worked with Crocker, often spoke of Crocker's qualities: "Wherever Charlie Crocker was engaged, labor and capital were just like this," illustrated by locking both hands together, and it was some fist.". It was only twenty-two miles to Coloma on the South Fork, where gold was discovered in 1848. Guppy portrait, courtesy John E. Charles Collection. The Central Pacific Railroad (CPRR) was a rail company chartered by U.S. Congress in 1862 to build a railroad eastwards from Sacramento, California, to complete the western part of the "First Transcontinental Railroad" in North America. His parents were then living in the township of Watervliet, not far from Albany, New York, but they were both of families resident in New England since the middle of the seventeenth century. In 1855, he was named a member of the City Council, and in 1860, a member of the state legislature. The story goes that on May 10, 1869, the Central Pacific Railroad’s tracks from the west were connected to the Union Pacific Railroad’s tracks from the east in Promontory Summit, Utah. . Dr. Strong undoubtedly is entitled to the credit for the suggestion of the route that had been known as the Emigrant Trail. Commissioners Organize Union Pacific Railroad. Durant Hires General Dodge. One of his associates would prepare the list, it would be given a brief glance and approved." THE ROAD WAS BUILT PAST THE SITE OF THIS MONUMENT, OVER THE LOFTY SIERRA-ALONG THE LINE OF JUDAH'S SURVEY-TO A JUNCTION WITH THE UNION PACIFIC AT PROMONTORY, UTAH, WHERE ON MAY 10, 1869, THE "LAST SPIKE" WAS DRIVEN. When the Central Pacific was started, Huntington, after becoming vice president of the company, went to Washington with Judah to forward the Act of 1862. They all moved to San Francisco and built their palatial homes on Nob Hill, where Crocker was supposed to have spent $1,500,000 on his. Lincoln Order Establishes Initial Point. H. E. Huntington proved to be a man of ability and was active in the affairs of the railroad. However, Stanford, Huntington, and Hopkins all found positions in the enterprise doing work with which they were familiar to a certain degree. This was done, however, when the ends of the track were so close together that the other side had no opportunity even to attempt to do better. In addition to being responsible for buildings and bridges, he was called upon to construct the elaborate mansions of Stanford and Crocker on Nob Hill in San Francisco, as well as the original Del Monte Hotel at Monterey. Stanford had been a Whig in politics, but at that time the party was dissolving over the slavery question. Montague's first engineering employment came in 1852 when he was twenty-two years of age, on the Rock Island and Rockford Railroad. For the new railroad, Judah's surveys extended to Mormon Island, a few miles upstream from Folsom, but the line was never built to that point. The boy was trained with the intent of succeeding his father in business, but he died in Florence, Italy, in 1884. The Crocker - Huffman Company built the large irrigation system that in later years, long after Crocker's death, formed the basis of the Merced Irrigation District, one of the largest in California. Shortly after work was started, Mr. Crocker, the member of the Big Four who was given charge of construction, in conversation with a friend of his who was engaged in hydraulic mining in the mountains, mentioned the fact that he needed a superintendent to handle the work and asked if the friend knew anyone who was competent to handle that job. The Chinese contribution to the Central Pacific Railroad was immeasurable. The government bill applied only to a new road. A barometric reconnaissance was made of two other routes, at that time deemed possible. He played a pivotal role in the creation of the first railway that encompassed the western United States. On his return to Sacramento, Judah filed his second report with the company, dated October 22, 1862. UP and CP Break Ground. Immediately behind them were a number of men who occupied responsible positions and to whom were delegated certain powers, the exercise of which was an important factor in forwarding the work. Huntington's activities extended into fields other than railroading. The most noted of these was the formation of the Newport News Shipbuilding and Drydock Company, served by the Chesapeake and Ohio Railroad. The Southern Pacific began in 1861 as a company called the Central Pacific, formed to build a railroad east … Judah, who was called an enthusiastic lunatic, returned to Sacramento disgusted with San Francisco. Pacific Railroad Act. There he worked at raising funds by selling railroad securities and the government bonds allotted to the road, purchasing supplies, and chartering ships for freighting the equipment around the Horn or across the Isthmus of Panama. There was a saving of distance of 184 miles over the government route. Stanford became the nominee of the embryo party for state treasurer in 1857 and for governor in 1859, but was defeated in both elections. The fact remains that in the construction of the Central Pacific Crocker accomplished one of the greatest feats in the annals of construction. Four years prior to this milestone the Southern Pacific had been established to connect San Francisco and San Diego, California. Crédit Mobilier increased the cost by 100%. The family moved to St. Claire, Michigan, and on the death of his father in 1828, the son left school to work as a clerk for several years. The result was that an organization meeting of stockholders was held April 30, 1861, and on the 28th of June the Central Pacific Railroad was incorporated. They were all merchants having their headquarters in Sacramento, and prior to the time of starting the railroad had never been connected with a project of that sort. After the death of the elder Huntington, the nephew married his uncle's widow, thus keeping the Huntington fortune intact. He was also interested in real estate in southern California and in electric power development. By the purchase of some Texas roads and the construction of others, the Southern Pacific eventually reached New Orleans. This acquaintance would later prove to be profitable for Durant, as, in 1862, President Lincoln chose Durant’s Union Pacific and its base of operation, Council Bluffs, Iowa, to serve as the starting point of the First Transcontinental Railroad. Older than the others, to whom he became "Uncle Mark," his judgment was respected, and at times he could be firm in carrying out his ideas. Charles Cadwallader acted as chief engineer for the Contract and Finance Company, and J. M. Graham was his principal assistant from Cisco to Promontory. The founders of the Central Pacific Railroad Company became fabulously wealthy. He set up the financial structure that resulted in the Crédit Mobilier scandal. "If they treat me well they may expect similar treatment at my hands. In particular, Central Pacific's attention was drawn to a new government railroad venture known as the Southern Pacific, chartered by Congress in 1866 to build rail lines from the San Francisco Bay area to San Diego, California, thence eastward to California's eastern boundary. Because of this, Durant disregarded his engineers and gave instructions to build extra tracks in large oxbows. There was no will and a long series of lawsuits followed his death. When the placer mines were exhausted, Folsom declined in importance, and the railroad lost its principal source of revenue. The Central Pacific Railroad (CPRR) was a rail company chartered by U.S. Congress in 1862 to build a railroad eastwards from Sacramento, California, to complete the western part of the First Transcontinental Railroad in North America. They made the return trip to Sacramento in the fall of 1855, when Stanford renewed his business alone, although the firm's name was Stanford Brothers. Founders: Theodore Judah founded the Transcontinental Railroad, he had help from the Big Four who were investors in Judah. Clement continued on the location across Nevada and Utah, and in several letters Stanford, working from Salt Lake, mentions the work done by "Clem" over the Promontory Mountains. Charles Crocker was the son of Isaac and Eliza (Wright) Crocker, with a New England ancestry dating back to the seventeenth century. The partnership with Mark Hopkins was ideal, since Huntington dictated the policy of the firm and was the outside man, while Hopkins attended to the bookkeeping and office details. None better could be devised for any man. After leaving medicine, Thomas C. Durant joined his uncle's grain exporting company, Durant, Lathrop and Company in New York City, as a director. In 1862, the Central Pacific and the Union Pacific Railroad Companies began building a transcontinental railroad that would link the United States from east to … They established a contracting company together, naming it Farnam and Durant. His principle charities were extended to the Negroes, whom he met in his early travels in the South. The grading forces were entirely Chinese in gangs of about fifty-five with a white foreman, generally Irish. At later meetings Judah met for the first time the men who were to carry out the project Leland Stanford, Collis P. Huntington, Mark Hopkins, and Charles Crocker. He also established his sons in industry and in banking. 1863 . Founded as an investment by these four men in 1861. On the steamer he met Mr. J. C. Burch, a newly elected congressman from California, and General Lane, senator from Oregon. Of American ancestry, Strobridge was born on a farm in Vermont, April 21, 1827, and he died at his home near Hayward, California. Although the railroad got off to a good start, a team of magnates, so-called the Big Four¹, were eyeing the growing company. When the plan of awarding contracts to a number of small contractors, as advocated by Judah, was found unworkable through the lack of laborers, Crocker himself took over and finished the work as far as Newcastle, California. They evidently were in doubt as to the possibilities for profit and were willing to get out for the sum named. He had town houses in New York and San Francisco, a country place at Throggs Neck on Long Island Sound, and a summer camp at Raquette Lake in the Adirondacks, where he died. He also held a 19,000-acre ranch near Gridley for the growing of wheat. Such advice is usually of great assistance, not only to the owners, but also to the engineers in charge. In October of that year he returned to Indiana to marry Mary A. Deming, a union that was rewarded with three sons and one daughter. . He was subsequently forced to resign. ... into the ground marking the end of the railroad. We were then transferred to construction work in Lang Canyon near Los Angeles. On his death, provision was made for the world famous Huntington Library and Art Galley at San Marino. There were no children, but Huntington had adopted his first wife's niece, Clara Prentice, when she was less than a year old, and the child was raised as Clara Huntington. Some 300 miles of main line track were built in 1865–66 over the flat prairies. 1863. His father and mother, William and Elizabeth (Vincent) Huntington, were of New England ancestry, their forebears having come from England at a nearly date. He was born in 1826 in Bridgeport, Connecticut and lived until 1863, when he died in New York without seeing the completion of his dream, the first transcontinental railroad. Out of the men who were employed, there grew an organization for the operation of the railroad after it was completed. It often happens in engineering construction that outside advice is sought by those in charge of the work. He was then placed in charge of bridges and buildings, continuing in that position until the road Was completed. Finally, Huntington continued meeting men in Congress and in the departments where the issuance of bonds was attended to, where patents for the granted lands were made out, and where similar subjects were arranged. The Southern Pacific Railroad was founded in 1865 by a group of businessmen led by Timothy Phelps. Theodore Judah, a civil engineer and one of the Central Pacific’s founders, figured out a pathway through California’s treacherous Sierra Nevada range, lobbied Congress to fund the transcontinental railroad, and in 1861 assembled a group of investors to finance it. After selling the rest of his stock in the Union Pacific, Durant established a new railroad company, Adirondack Railroad. Mr. W. B. Storey, who for many years engaged in railroad work in California and was a Iong-time president of the Santa Fe Railroad, gave the author of this book his impressions of Strobridge. He was one of the founders of the Central Pacific Railroad Company that helped build the first transcontinental railroad.He also served as governor of California and as a United States Senator. It was a most unusual proceeding. Clement remained with the railroad for many years. The contractors received payments from the government for each track built. At the same time he attended to legislation in Washington. The book appeared in a reprint edition in 1989. This type of contract, in which the contractor finances the work, nearly always breeds trouble, because the contractor invariably feels that lie may do as he pleases with the work. We of the Central Pacific engineers had heard of the forcefulness of Strobridge and the arbitrariness of his methods, neither he nor his men taking any orders from the engineers, and the only function of the latter being to give grades and centers and to cross section. Later that same year he married Mrs. A. D. Worsham of New York and Alabama. However, under the press of other more important business, the bills never reached a vote, although Judah established an office in the capitol and filled it with maps and other data for the enlightenment of members of Congress. At the outbreak of the Civil War, he was a telegraph operator at St. Louis, from which place he crossed the plains to California on a trip of 149 days, arriving in the fall of 1861. He had retained his stock interest in the railroad and had taken the notes of his Associates for the money due him. Central Pacific Railroad, American railroad company founded in 1861 by a group of California merchants known later as the “Big Four” ( He died on March 7, 1917, at the age of eighty-seven years, having long outlived most of the men with Whom he Was associated in the building of the Central Pacific Railroad. Among the names of assistant engineers on construction are found those of [Alonzo Russll] Guppy [portrait above, right], Phelps, Bates, Finley, Eaton, and [Henry] Root. Consequentially, since building fast brought in more cash than building efficiently, the two lines spent little time choosing routes; they just laid track and cashed in. In 1873, Durant asked his children to come back home, so they could help him in regaining the family’s wealth in the Adirondack Wilderness where he had acquired half a million acres of land. Huntington trusted him in everything which is a trust that the vice president did not repose in many others. William's camps Pine Knot, Uncas and Sagamore were purchased from the father and son duo by Collis P. Huntington, J.P. Morgan, and Alfred Vanderbilt. In accordance with your request I am giving you my recollections of J. H. Strobridge, Superintendent of Construction during the building of the Central Pacific and later of the Southern Pacific and other subsidiaries of the Central. Subsequent construction for a number of years was carried on by the subsidiary construction company with some small extensions handled by contract. He was then elected to a second term as senator in 1891, took his final trip to Europe in the summer of 1892, and died at his home in Palo. The rival railroad gangs had made successively larger records until the Union Pacific made an unusually large one and that record was apparently to be allowed to stand. While people in the company had their suspicions, they were too afraid to approach him with these accusations. That record stands, so far as I know, the best that has ever been made. Collis P. Huntington (1821-1900): One of the “Big Four” founders of the Central Pacific Railroad. Gray was born at Verona, New York, on September 12, 1818, and after years of retirement, died at the advanced age of ninety-four in Berkeley, California, on January 1, 1913. Judah returned from Washington convinced that the subject of a Pacific Railroad must be agitated from the West. From the California state line to the junction with the Union Pacific in Utah, the work was done by the Contract and Finance Company, of which Crocker was president. Like to Meet Warren County, New York the book started by her father the blatantly. 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