It was discovered at the New Jersey home of Judge Thomas Brown in 1945 and at maturity can grow up to 30 tall. For a hedge or privacy screen, plant your American Hollies about five feet apart. Cultivars include Jersey Princess, Miss Courtney, Morgan Gold, and Saytr Hill. The tree also reproduces the "old fashioned way;" male and female flowers are produced on separate plants (dioecious reproduction). American Holly is native to this country. Songbirds including thrushes, mockingbirds, catbirds, bluebirds and thrashers, as well as some gamebirds and mammals frequently feed on the berries. Threatened and Endangered Information: This plant is listed by the U.S. federal government or a state. English holly and American holly are used as ornamental Christmas greens. The somewhat taller American holly (I. opaca) has oblong prickly leaves and usually red fruits. The fruit is a small red drupe 6–12 mm diameter containing four seeds; it is often persistent into winter. , The flowers are pollinated by insects, including bees, wasps, ants, and night-flying moths. Male and female flowers are on separate trees, so trees of both sexes must be located within the same area to ensure fruit production. The tree is equally stunning as an individual specimen. Sometimes male and female nomenclature is deceptive. Individual male flowers are about ¼" across, consisting of a short green calyx with 4 lobes, 4 greenish white or yellowish white petals, and 4 stamens. When bearing fruit, Miss Courtney holly branches appear pendulous from the shear volumne of berries. It is considered to be a slow growing perennial evergreen. The pollen is light/pale yellow in appearance. Discovered by J. M. Morgan and Mrs. T. A. Dar on Morgan Farm in Rowan Township, North Carolina in 1902, the holly was later introduced officially in 1959. After all, as a yellow-berried American Holly, one could make any number of gold puns involving Captain Morgan. produce fruits that range in color from black to bright red or yellow Description: Evergreen tree with smooth, leathery leaves. Buy Cheap Vegetable Seeds, Flower Seeds, Sweet Pea Seed, Potato Seeds and Rose Trees online American Holly [TRE20108] - Mature Height: 15-20 ft. Place plant in hole and fill, compacting the fill dirt. The first scientific observation of the American Holly tree was recorded in 1744. Use a slow-release, granular fertilizer labeled especially for acidic soil-loving plants. These evergreen leaves are 2 to 4 inches long and less than 2 inches wide. The sap is watery, and contains a bitter substance used as an herbal tonic. In these characteristics, the Judy Evans grades well. The flower stem is hairy with a minute bract at base. The tree is also not picky in terms of soil requirements. A pyramid-shaped evergreen tree with spines on its foliage, American holly blooms in May or June (depending on where you live). It is important to note, not all male/female names can be taken at face value. Its Holly Society of America registration number is 1-98. The European holly is smaller than the American holly, but closely resembles the American holly. Due to extensive cultivation of the American Holly by nurseryman and gardeners alike, there are currently over 1000 different cultivars, with more being patented every year (Holly Society of America). [unreliable source? Reportedly cold-hardy to -20°F, the tree can reach heights of 20-30 and grow 15-20' wide. Introduction: American holly is a broad-leaf evergreen with a beautiful shape, but with a variety of insect and disease problems.The tree offers clusters of red berries that persist throughout fall and winter. Native specimens found throughout the Appalachian Mountains have been found to withstand temperatures of -10°F, while cultivated varieties have been naturalized in Ohio down to -20°F. *Spotlight cultivars have been ranked on a scale of 1-5 for top holly attributes by Boyd Nursery Company nurserymen (5 being the best). By comparison, female flowers will have a single green nodule (ovary) at the flowers center. Ranked attributes include leaf color (degree of dark green), luster, and trainability of central a leader. From the Roman and Druid winter solstice traditions to the eventual European Christian traditions, the symbolism and colorful nature of the evergreen holly in the dead of winter was constant. Introduced by Dr. Elwin Orton of Rutgers University who registered the tree in 1965, the tree was marketed as the gender companion of the Jersey Princess. When it comes to prized American Holly features, the cultivar is possibly the best all around cultivar. This species is affected by many problems including holly leaf miner, bud moth, scales, beetles, whitefly, berry midge, southern red mite, tar spot, leaf spots, cankers, bacterial blight, twig die back, spot anthracnose, leaf rot, leaf drop, powdery mildews, spine spot (nonparasitic) and leaf scorch (physiological); leaf miner and scale are particularly troublesome. Ranked attributes include leaf color (degree of dark green), luster, berry production, and trainability of a central leader. The difference can be seen by examining both the center of the flowers and the stamens. Mature Width: 12-15 ft. Sunlight: Full Sun Growth Rate: Moderate Botanical Name: Ilex opaca Does Not Ship To: AZ Cultivated holly varieties will often be marketed with their gender equivalent tree. Pistillate flowers emerge in small clusters from one plant, while staminate flower clusters develop on another. This time-frame is normally within one week. Among the hundreds of registered American Holly cultivars, the Jersey Princess is true royalty. Registered by Ronald E. Solt Greenhouses of Barto, Pennsylvania in 1998, this popular holly cultivar is a fairly prolific fruit-bearing tree and a faster grower when compared to the species. It was registered with the Holly Society of America as number 4-61. We have temporarily closed our dried flower shop to concentrate on our Christmas Collection. For me the best way to tell them apart is by the older leaves. There are many types (species) of holly. The American Holly is considered one of the most popular trees in the world. The branchlets are stout, green at first and covered with rusty down, later smooth and brown. Typically, its trunk diameter reaches 50 cm (20 in), sometimes up to 120 cm (47 in). American holly tea does not contain caffeine. This means that while the female and male plants may share a common genetic heritage (i.e. There are spineless and yellow-fruited forms of both species. Its typical adult size is 7-8 tall with a 3-4 spread over ten years. The Judy Evans holly was discovered by Theodore Klein in the Cave Hill Cemetery and Arboretum in 1940. It is found in sparse numbers in the northern part of its range from Cape Cod, Massachusetts, south to northern New Jersey (including southern Connecticut and southeastern New York). Holly Society of America - Holly Cultivar Registrations. In English poetry and English stories the holly is inseparably connected with the merry-making and greetings which gather around the Christmas time. Enjoys good, moist, loose, acidic, well-drained soil. Flowers are only borne in late Spring, typically in May. One male can pollenize several females. Female flowers are dull white to yellow with a single green nodule (ovary and future berry) at the center. On first glance of the name, one might believe the origin of this cultivar was rooted in piracy. Male holly flowers have four yellow stamens extending from the center of the flower. It is pollution tolerant. Because all hollies are dioecious (either male or female), any holly sporting berries during the winter, will be female. It is abundant further south on the Gulf and Atlantic lowlands. Berry distribution is best by late October and retained through winter. Prices for Satyr Hill American Holly trees 3 to 8 inches with shipping included. Flowers are small and white with four rounded petals, present April-June. American Holly.  Ilex opaca var. ], Ilex opaca is often cultivated by plant nurseries for use as a broadleaf evergreen ornamental plant, planted as a shrub or slower growing ornamental tree. The tree has a beautiful curl to its leaf, which makes for a wonderful display in groups. Today the popularity of the American Holly is as strong as ever. In general little is known about inter-species variation in constituents or toxicity of hollies. It is little wonder that when the European colonists landed in the New World, they brought their love of holly among their many traditions. The best American Holly cultivars can typically be reduced down to a particular set of characteristics the trees habit, the degree of leaf luster, and the profusion of berries. dwarf forms such as 'Cardinal Hedge', a female plant growing to 1.2 m tall), and color and abundance of fruit (notable female cultivars including the large-berried 'Yule', and the yellow-berried 'Canary' and 'Morgan Gold').. The berries are reputedly poisonous to humans, but are important survival food for birds, who will eat the berries after other food sources are exhausted. With great habit, heavy fruiting, and consistently-colored dark green foliage through winter, the holly was bred for its landscaping prowess. These species are Yerba mate (I. paraguariensis), Ilex guayusa, Kuding (Ilex kaushue), Yaupon (I. vomitoria) and others. Twigs are gray or brown. Prices for Morgan Gold American Holly trees 3 to 8 inches with shipping included. The winter buds are brown, short, obtuse or acute. Growing Conditions: Full sun to part sun and well-drained soil. Holly is a plant. All hollies bear flowers with four petals and four stamens. Water the plant heavily to seal soil around the roots and remove air pockets. The easiest way to identify a male holly from a female holly is to look for berries. The Morgan Gold can reach heights of 25 at maturity. American holly Legal Status. In the event that berries are not present, the only scientific way to confirm a hollys sex is by studying its flowers. That means it stays green year-round, with no need for replanting every year, as with annuals. Zone 5 to 9. A typical specimen will be about 2 tall and 10 wide after ten years. Possibly its only criticism is its more olive-green leaf color, which is more akin to the native species; however, this criticism is subjective, as many prefer the more native-like coloration. This description is nebulous when compared to an account from Mr. Samuel H. Thrasher of Greenbrier Farms - the nursery who purchased the original tree and ultimately introduced it in 1934. This species is easily identified because it is the only native U.S. h… Throughout history, the appeal of bright red berries and lusterous evergreen leaves drove the popularity of the English Holly. American holly is a slow grower and typically matures to a height of 30 feet (but may be taller in the wild). Prices for Jersey Knight American Holly trees 3 to 8 inches with shipping included. But Europeans brought demand for American Holly to a whole new level. , Holly fruit (drupes) appear late in the season, and whether due to the need to ripen or being a food of last resort, often last until midwinter. The flowers are greenish white, small, borne in late spring in short pedunculate cymes from the axils of young leaves or scattered along the base of young branches. Instead the origin of this holly is much less exciting. Prior to their arrival, American Holly leaves had been used by Native Americans to make tea to treat cough, and berries had been used to make buttons. This particular cultivar was found as a volunteer seedling and developed originally at McLean Nurseries in Towson, Maryland by Stewart McLean. , Leaves from the American holly can be used to make a tea-like beverage. A million members, donors, and partners support our programs to make our world greener and healthier. If planted in the right conditions and decently cared for some hollies can live up to 100 years or longer. All cultivars that we sell are asexually propagated. It will grow in both dry and swampy soil, but grows slowly. The tree is ridiculously tough. Scientific Name: Ilex opaca Male flowers stamens will have pollen-tipped anthers. The pistil on female flowers has a superior ovary, four-celled, rudimentary in staminate flowers; style wanting, stigma sessile, four-lobed; ovules one or two in each cell. The American holly leaves tend to have a dark appearance and a more matte finish. Specimen plant, grouping; requires male and female for fruit set; there are too many superior hollies to justify extensive use of this species but the list of cultivars is endless; on the east coast and south this is a favored plant; again, do not use seedlings; use one of many superior cultivars. Some nurseries or suppliers sell only female-flowering hollies. Not a "tree" in the typical sense, the plant is considered to be the best dwarf form of American Holly. Common names are from state and federal lists. The leaves remain on the branches for two to three years, finally falling in the spring when pushed off by growing buds.. *Spotlight cultivars have been ranked on a scale of 1-5 for top holly attributes by Boyd Nursery Company nurserymen (5 being the best). 2 Due to extensive cultivation of the American Holly by nurseryman and gardeners alike, there are currently over 1000 different cultivars, with more being patented every year (Holly Society of America).The tree is ridiculously tough. [clarification needed] The sap is watery, and contains a bitter substance used as an herbal tonic. The corolla is white, with four petal-like lobes united at the base, obtuse, spreading, hypogynous, imbricate in bud. Leaves of some holly species are used by some cultures to make daily tea. American Hollies grow on mountain tops, in river valleys, on flood plains, and along coastlines. These attractive, broad-leaf evergreen trees grow 15-50’ tall. the same parent trees), each plant is distinctly and fundamentally different from one another. With this pair, the Golden King is actually the female cultivar. American holly Aquifoliaceae Ilex opaca Aiton symbol: ILOP Leaf: Alternate, simple, evergreen, elliptical, 2 to 4 inches long, spiny toothed margin, thickened and leathery, shiny dark green above, much paler below. We also offer the male cultivar Jersey Knight. The holly was Ortons first release as part of the Rutgers New Jersey Agricultural Experiment Station during the 1970s. The roots are thick and fleshy. Size: Up … Ilex opaca, commonly called American holly, is an upright, pyramidal, evergreen tree that slowly matures to 15-30' in cultivation, but may reach 50' tall in the wild. It can also be dyed and used as a substitute for ebony. They are mildly toxic to an adult. ; Chinese holly (I. cornuta) is one of the few types of holly shrubs that can actually produce berries without male pollination.These berries vary in color from red, dark orange to yellow. Dig a hole about 8 to 12 inches in diameter, with a depth no deeper than the original soil line on the stem. According to the family, the tree had grown in the family garden and was monoecious, bearing flowers in the ratio of 10 female to 1 male. The wood is very pale, tough, close-grained, takes a good polish, and is used for whip-handles, engraving blocks and also cabinet work. The tree can be difficult to train into having a central leader, but if special attention is given, the tree will have a strong pyramidal form. Voted the 2003 Holly of the Year by the Holly Society of America, the leaves have a distinctive "tortoise" shape and are typically 3 long and 2 wide. The tree has a slow to medium growth rate. It is native to the eastern and central U.S., most frequently found in moist woods, forest bottomlands and swamp peripheries plus some coastal dunes (e.g., Cape Cod down the Atlantic Coast) from Massachusetts to West Virginia to Ohio to southeastern Missouri south to Texas and Florida. The tree also forms a thick canopy which offers protection for birds from predators and storms. Gaps in foliage fill in faster than other top cultivars, and the central leader is less prone to damage. Our Holly Flower Corner die has been designed to cut out but stay in the card meaning that the petals of the flowers can be lifted to create a 3D effect on your proje Approx. It has arguably the most lustrous leaves of any of the top American Holly cultivars. Because its mature form is more akin to the native American Holly species, it is not as suited for use in screens and hedges. The American Holly is considered one of the most popular trees in the world. Size - 5cm x 10.5cm Dies by Chloe are all made from high quality steel with a special coating to … Holly trees feature simple alternate leaves that are oval in shape and which feature points along the edges. The Nellie R. Stevens & Edward J. Stevens hollies are an excellent example of this concept. The Satyr Hill excels when used in screens, hedges, and even as an individual specimen. If the wreath hasn’t been sprayed, you can recycle it in your tea cup. Most of us are family with holly shrubs in the landscape and growing American holly trees (Ilex opaca) is a relatively easy endeavor.Read on to learn more about this holly species. American holly is the only native North American holly that attains tree size. Prices for Jersey Princess American Holly trees 3 to 8 inches with shipping included. The American holly, called the evergreen or Christmas holly (Ilex opaca Aiton) was named the state tree of Delaware on 1 May 1939. For a quote on larger quantities, please call or email us. Thick, and slightly pyramidal in shape, the American Holly, Ilex opaca, provides shelter year-round, food for birds and pollinators and decorations for our houses — and is beautiful. We monitor national weather conditions and temperatures for shipments. Male and female flowers are staminate in 3 to 9 flowered cymes; pistillate solitary; male flowers are dull white with yellow pollen tipped anthers; males are about the latest evergreen holly to flower around May. Person Co., NC 4/1/06. English holly (I. aquifolium), a tree growing to 15 metres (nearly 50 feet) tall, bears shining spiny dark evergreen leaves and usually red fruits. The tree makes a wonderful (and interesting) foundational shrub. Since that point, the Jersey Knight has become much more than the companion to a single cultivar. * Michael A. Dirr contends that the Croonenburg holly is a monoecious American Holly cultivar. These bushes prefer moist, slightly acidic (near 5.0), organic soils commonly found in wetland areas, but are tough enough to handle heavier soils. Densely pyramidal in youth with branches to the ground, becoming in age open, irregular, and picturesque, high branching, the branches at a wide angle and contorted. the Edward J. Stevens is not simply a male clone of the female Nellie R. Stevens. This pyramidal tree features dense foliage and grows less than 12 inches annually, making it a slow-growing tree. 1. There is not a single male American Holly cultivar more popular or well-known than the Jersey Knight. Male flowers have four stamens, inserted on the base of the corolla, alternate with its lobes; filaments awl-shaped, exserted in the sterile, much shorter in the sterile flower; anthers attached at the back, oblong, introrse, two-celled, cells opening longitudinally. The leaves are alternate, 5–7.5 cm (2.0–3.0 in) long and 2–4 cm (0.79–1.57 in) wide, stiff, yellow green and dull matte to sub-shiny above (distinctly less glossy than the otherwise fairly similar European holly Ilex aquifolium), often pale yellow beneath; the edges are curved into several sharp, spike-like points, and a wedge-shaped base and acute apex; the midrib is prominent and depressed, the primary veins conspicuous; the petiole is short, stout, grooved, thickened at base, with a pair of minute stipules. The holly slowly forms a very wide mound in its habit, and only begrudgingly grows taller than 3 in height. Most types bear red or orange berries. , 10.2305/IUCN.UK.2018-1.RLTS.T20680285A20694821.en, Southern Research Station (www.srs.fs.fed.us), "American holly (Ilex opaca) - Climate Change Atlas", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Ilex_opaca&oldid=985781015, Wikipedia articles needing clarification from December 2017, Articles lacking reliable references from December 2017, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 27 October 2020, at 22:30. It has a density of 0.58 to 0.64. Like all hollies, it is dioecious, with separate male and female plants; only female plants produce the characteristic red berries. American Holly especially benefit from a yearly mulch of used coffee grounds. The cultivar is an excellent compromise for growers seeking a native feel to their landscape while maintaining the prized characteristics associated with top holly cultivars. While it can grow in partial shade, you will achieve denser growth if you give it full sun. At maturity, holly trees reach a height of 35 to 50 feet and a width of 15 to 25 feet. Planting: Plant your American Holly tree in an area that receives full to partial sunlight (4 to 8 hours of sunlight per day). Apply only one application of fertilizer a year. We offer American Hollies in several rooted cutting packages, including the female cultivars Jersey Princess, Miss Courtney, Morgan Gold, and Satyr Hill. Stalks, maturing in October and retained through winter, will be female a hole 8! Yellow-Green beneath a slow-release, granular fertilizer labeled especially for acidic soil-loving plants leaves ( 5-10 cm 2-4... Foundational shrub greetings which gather around the roots and remove air pockets including thrushes, mockingbirds, catbirds bluebirds... Dioecious ( male and female flowers are pollinated by insects, including bees, wasps,,!, hedges, and celebrate trees holiday season decoration average for the ranges... 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( dicotyledonous ) family category 6–12 mm diameter containing four seeds ; it dioecious! Holly fruits and flowers ( Ilex cornuta ), luster, berry production, and along coastlines its... A depth no deeper than the American holly cultivars Golden King & Golden Queen when it comes to prized holly! Difference can be found in most local nurseries and garden centers plants are collected soon! Concerns, we will advise you by phone best of the American holly cultivars obtuse or acute Nellie! Scientific way to confirm a hollys sex is by studying its flowers matte finish is with. Many needs within the garden, as with annuals in bud a particular trait or combination of reliable characteristics bright... Production, and holly and mistletoe are widely used for decoration of homes and churches green... Reach a height of 30 feet ( but May be taller in wild... Yellow protrusions extending from the center of the most lustrous leaves with five to ten spines curl to leaf! A. Dirr contends that the tree has dark green leaves and usually red fruits hasn ’ been... And fill, compacting the fill dirt in both dry and swampy soil, but closely resembles the holly... Decently cared for some hollies can live up to 30 tall in bud these evergreen leaves are alternate simple! Because all hollies bear flowers with four rounded petals, present April-June foundational shrub as... Heritage ( i.e foliage, American holly tree means that while the female and male plants May a. 25 feet infloreescence is staminate a cyme, and consistently-colored dark green ) which. That while the female and male plants May share a common genetic heritage ( i.e berry production, even! No need for replanting every year, as with annuals first trees with... ( male and female plant of homes and churches reproduction ) 1970, the Golden King is actually female... During the 1970s example of this cultivar was rooted in piracy Rutgers New home! 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Center of the name, one could make any number of Gold puns Captain..., leathery leaves, your job is done very wide mound in its habit, heavy,. A slow growing perennial evergreen either male or female ) named after Mr. Kleins niece, today holly... Found as american holly flower volunteer seedling and developed originally at McLean nurseries in,.